Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (76):
3 practical divisions of the respiratory system?
conductive & transitional system
gas exchange system
Two blood supplies of the lung and their functions?
1) bronchial circulation (supports lung)
2) pulmonary circulation (participates in gas exchange.. unoxygenated)
Surfactant production requires?
What are the 3 mechanisms of particle deposition use by the lung's innate immune system?
What are the benefits of secretory IgA?
It can bind antigens to prevent them from adhering to epithelium & it doesn't stimulate complement (less inflammatory response)
A congenital defect in the microtubules that affects ciliary function, causing them to be non-motile
Primary ciliary dyskinesia
Give 4 differentials for epistaxis in a horse
1) Iatrogenic (NG intubation)
2) ethmoid hematoma
3) guttural pouch mycosis (erosion of int. carotid)
4) exercise induced pulmonary hemorrhage
What structure must be present for re-epithelization to occur
Of the types of rhinitis, which is slowest to resolve and often becomes chronic?
Give 2 common causes of acute rhinitis
Allergic (Type 1)
Describe how a viral infection leads to rhinitis
Virus causes necrosis of surface epithelium, leading to exudation of fluid and mucus into the lumen
edema builds in submucosa, causing a partial blockage of the nasal passages
2 major consequences of chronic rhinitis
goblet cell hyperplasia
Irregular, swollen polypoid mucosa that can develop secondary to chronic rhinitis
Nasal polyps (can obstruct airways)
A unique cause of sinusitus in ruminants
Dehorning (injury to frontal sinus)
BHV-1 causes what disease in cattle?
Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)
When fibrin is deposited over a necrotic mucosa, it's referred to as
This disease leads to hypoplasia and/or atrophy of the nasal turbinate bones
Two forms of Atrophic rhinitis and causative agent of each?
1) non-progressive (NPAR); caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica
2) Progressive (PAR); caued by Pasteurella multocida (can also be in combination with B. bronchiseptica)
What clinical sign can be present with PAR but not NPAR
Name 4 infectious agents that cause upper respiratory tract infections in horses
1) EHV-1 & EHV-4
2) Eq Adenovirus
3) Eq Rhinovirs
4) Eq influenza
Disease caused by EHV-1 and EHV-4?
Equine viral rhinopneumonitis (EVR)
Causative agent of equine stangles?
Streptococcus equi spp. equi
Acute upper respiratory tract obstruction, rhinits, lymphadenitis are all associated with what equine disease?
2 ways Streptococcus equi avoids phagocytosis?
1) hyaluronic acid capsule
2) produces phagocytic protein (SeM)
3 potential outcomes of strangles extending into the guttural pouch?
1) laryngeal hemiplegia
3) horner's syndrome
Disease caused by feline herpsevirus-1?
Feline viral rhinotracheitis
This feline virus has a high affinity for the oral cavity and causes ulceration of the tongue and palate
B. bronchiseptica can be rapidly fatal in kittens due to the development of?
An obligate intracellular anaerobe that's part of the feline upper respiratory disease complex
This yeast-like organism commonly infects cats and causes facial swelling and gelatinous exudate
The most common etiologic agent involved in canine fungal rhinitis?
Common site for nasal neoplasms in:
4)sheep and goats
1) nasal passages
2) nasal vestibule
3) maxillary sinus
Sneezing, nasal discharge, and unilateral epistaxis are indicative of?
T/F: Most nasal neoplasms are malignant, locally invasive, and have a LOW metastatic potential
Name 3 lesions present with brachycephalic syndrome
1) elongated soft palate
2) stenotic nares
3) everted laryngeal saccules
Describe the pathophysiology of tracheal hypoplasia
tracheal rings for a closed ring (instead of C-shaped); causes a decrease in diameter throughout the trachea
Describe the pathophys behind collapsing trachea
Cartilage rings lack chondroitin sulfate and glycosaminoglycan-->decreased water binding-->floppy rings
Two ways obesity complicates collapsing trachea
1) decreases chest compliance
2) decreases diaphragm movement
Two causes of laryngeal edema?
1) acute inflammation
2) forced respiration
Unsanitary condition, pharyngeal trauma, and viral infection can all be associated with which disease in cattle?
Necrotic laryngitis (Calf diphtheria)
causative agent of Necrotic laryngitis (Calf diphtheria)
Most common cause of guttural pouch empyema?
Streptococcus equi (strangles)
1) obstructive pulmonary disease
2) Restrictive pulmonary disease
1) increased resistance to airflow caused by airway obstruction
2) diseases that limit lung inflation (parenchyma or thorax problem)
3 forms of acquired atelectasis
Cause of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome? (barker foals)
inadequate pulmonary surfactant production
Usual distribution of obstructive atelectasis?
Describe the pathogenesis of hypostatic atelectasis
shallow respiration leads to reduction of O2 in alveolus-->decreases function of type II pneumocytes-->decreased surfactant production
Emphysema develops as a result of?
airway obstruction that inhibits OUTFLOW of air
Two forms of secondary emphysema
3 causes of hemodynamic pulmonary edema
1) increased capillary hydrostatic pressure
2) decreased plasma colloid osmotic pressure
3) lymphatic obstruction
What causes permeability pulmonary edema?
increased capillary permeability (either inflammatory or cell damage)
Important product of Clara cells and it's function?
inhibits phospholipase A2
permanent dilation of a bronchus
Describe the pathogenesis of Bronchiectasis
consequence of chronic bronchitis:
exudates accumulate in bronchi, causing proteolytic enzyme release; that weakens bronchial smooth muscle and cartilage
Which type(s) of hypersensitivity play a role in recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)?
Type 1 & Type 2
Describe the pathogenesis of feline asthma
allergen binds IgE on mast cells in airways-->releases mediators-->bronchial smooth muscle contraction & hypersecretion of mucus
*Type 1 hypersensitivity*
Inflammation of the pulmonary gas exchange system
inflammation of the lung
4 ways to classify pneumonia?
route of infection
The most common pneumonia seen in animals
Pneumonia that presents as inflammation of the alveolar walls
Initial inflammation is centered where in bronchopneumonia?
Though they both share cranioventral distribution, Suppurative bronchopneumonia affects _______ while fibrinous bronchopneumonia affects _______
Comparing fibrinous and suppurative bronchopneumonias, which is more lethal?
Fibrinous (causes more severe lung injury)
Most common cause of interstitial pneumonia (think general)
Routes of exposure for interstitial pneumonia?
aerogenous or hematogenous
*Broncho is just aerogenous*
Distribution of interstitial pneumonia?
Describe the pathogenesis of ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome)
Endotoxin causes macrophage secretion of cytokines (TNF-a)
TNF-a primes neutrophils and causes them to release their enzyme and radicals while in the vessel
causes diffuse alveolar endothelial damage-->edema and fibrin fill alveolus
This pneumonia is characterized by abscess formation in all areas of the lung due to traveling boluses of bacteria
This type of pnuemonia is associated with hard to kill organisms and has a focal/multifocal distribution
*TYPE IV Hypersensitivity*
How does eq influenza virus leave the host susceptible to bacterial infection?
causes loss of cells and clumping of cilia, decreasing mucociliary clearance
Infections with canine distemper virus are commonly followed by infection with which bacteria?
In dogs other than greyhounds, what is the outcome of influenza
Which form of FIP is associated with high Ab titers?
A horse that accidentally inhales mineral oil will likely get?
Lipid pneumonia (exogenous)