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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (76):
1

3 practical divisions of the respiratory system?

conductive & transitional system
gas exchange system
vascular system

2

Two blood supplies of the lung and their functions?

1) bronchial circulation (supports lung)

2) pulmonary circulation (participates in gas exchange.. unoxygenated)

3

Surfactant production requires?

oxygen

4

What are the 3 mechanisms of particle deposition use by the lung's innate immune system?

impaction
sedimentation
diffusion

5

What are the benefits of secretory IgA?

It can bind antigens to prevent them from adhering to epithelium & it doesn't stimulate complement (less inflammatory response)

6

A congenital defect in the microtubules that affects ciliary function, causing them to be non-motile

Primary ciliary dyskinesia

7

Give 4 differentials for epistaxis in a horse

1) Iatrogenic (NG intubation)
2) ethmoid hematoma
3) guttural pouch mycosis (erosion of int. carotid)
4) exercise induced pulmonary hemorrhage

8

What structure must be present for re-epithelization to occur

basement membrane

9

Of the types of rhinitis, which is slowest to resolve and often becomes chronic?

Granulomatous

10

Give 2 common causes of acute rhinitis

Infection (viral)
Allergic (Type 1)

11

Describe how a viral infection leads to rhinitis

Virus causes necrosis of surface epithelium, leading to exudation of fluid and mucus into the lumen
edema builds in submucosa, causing a partial blockage of the nasal passages

12

2 major consequences of chronic rhinitis

goblet cell hyperplasia
squamous metaplasia

13

Irregular, swollen polypoid mucosa that can develop secondary to chronic rhinitis

Nasal polyps (can obstruct airways)

14

A unique cause of sinusitus in ruminants

Dehorning (injury to frontal sinus)

15

BHV-1 causes what disease in cattle?

Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR)

*red nose*

16

When fibrin is deposited over a necrotic mucosa, it's referred to as

diphtheritic membrane

17

This disease leads to hypoplasia and/or atrophy of the nasal turbinate bones

Atrophic rhinitis

18

Two forms of Atrophic rhinitis and causative agent of each?

1) non-progressive (NPAR); caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica

2) Progressive (PAR); caued by Pasteurella multocida (can also be in combination with B. bronchiseptica)

19

What clinical sign can be present with PAR but not NPAR

epistaxis

20

Name 4 infectious agents that cause upper respiratory tract infections in horses

1) EHV-1 & EHV-4
2) Eq Adenovirus
3) Eq Rhinovirs
4) Eq influenza

21

Disease caused by EHV-1 and EHV-4?

Equine viral rhinopneumonitis (EVR)

22

Causative agent of equine stangles?

Streptococcus equi spp. equi

23

Acute upper respiratory tract obstruction, rhinits, lymphadenitis are all associated with what equine disease?

Strangles

24

2 ways Streptococcus equi avoids phagocytosis?

1) hyaluronic acid capsule
2) produces phagocytic protein (SeM)

25

3 potential outcomes of strangles extending into the guttural pouch?

1) laryngeal hemiplegia
2) dysphagia
3) horner's syndrome

26

Disease caused by feline herpsevirus-1?

Feline viral rhinotracheitis

27

This feline virus has a high affinity for the oral cavity and causes ulceration of the tongue and palate

Feline calicivirus

28

B. bronchiseptica can be rapidly fatal in kittens due to the development of?

Acute bronchopneumonia

29

An obligate intracellular anaerobe that's part of the feline upper respiratory disease complex

Chlamydophila felis

30

This yeast-like organism commonly infects cats and causes facial swelling and gelatinous exudate

Crytptococcus neoformans

31

The most common etiologic agent involved in canine fungal rhinitis?

Aspergillus spp.

*opportunistic*

32

Common site for nasal neoplasms in:
1) dogs
2) cats
3) horses
4)sheep and goats

1) nasal passages
2) nasal vestibule
3) maxillary sinus
4) ethmoid

33

Sneezing, nasal discharge, and unilateral epistaxis are indicative of?

Nasal neoplasm

34

T/F: Most nasal neoplasms are malignant, locally invasive, and have a LOW metastatic potential

TRUE

35

Name 3 lesions present with brachycephalic syndrome

1) elongated soft palate
2) stenotic nares
3) everted laryngeal saccules

36

Describe the pathophysiology of tracheal hypoplasia

tracheal rings for a closed ring (instead of C-shaped); causes a decrease in diameter throughout the trachea

37

Describe the pathophys behind collapsing trachea

Cartilage rings lack chondroitin sulfate and glycosaminoglycan-->decreased water binding-->floppy rings

38

Two ways obesity complicates collapsing trachea

1) decreases chest compliance
2) decreases diaphragm movement

39

Two causes of laryngeal edema?

1) acute inflammation
2) forced respiration

40

Unsanitary condition, pharyngeal trauma, and viral infection can all be associated with which disease in cattle?

Necrotic laryngitis (Calf diphtheria)

41

causative agent of Necrotic laryngitis (Calf diphtheria)

Fusobacterium necrophorum

42

Most common cause of guttural pouch empyema?

Streptococcus equi (strangles)

43

Define:
1) obstructive pulmonary disease
2) Restrictive pulmonary disease

1) increased resistance to airflow caused by airway obstruction

2) diseases that limit lung inflation (parenchyma or thorax problem)

44

3 forms of acquired atelectasis

Compressive
Obstructive
Hypostatic

45

Cause of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome? (barker foals)

inadequate pulmonary surfactant production

46

Usual distribution of obstructive atelectasis?

lobular

47

Describe the pathogenesis of hypostatic atelectasis

Distribution?

shallow respiration leads to reduction of O2 in alveolus-->decreases function of type II pneumocytes-->decreased surfactant production

*Unilateral*

48

Emphysema develops as a result of?

airway obstruction that inhibits OUTFLOW of air

49

Two forms of secondary emphysema

1) alveolar
2) interstitial

50

3 causes of hemodynamic pulmonary edema

1) increased capillary hydrostatic pressure
2) decreased plasma colloid osmotic pressure
3) lymphatic obstruction

51

What causes permeability pulmonary edema?

increased capillary permeability (either inflammatory or cell damage)

52

Important product of Clara cells and it's function?

CC10

inhibits phospholipase A2

53

Define:
Bronchiectasis

permanent dilation of a bronchus

54

Describe the pathogenesis of Bronchiectasis

consequence of chronic bronchitis:

exudates accumulate in bronchi, causing proteolytic enzyme release; that weakens bronchial smooth muscle and cartilage

55

Which type(s) of hypersensitivity play a role in recurrent airway obstruction (RAO)?

Type 1 & Type 2

56

Describe the pathogenesis of feline asthma

allergen binds IgE on mast cells in airways-->releases mediators-->bronchial smooth muscle contraction & hypersecretion of mucus

*Type 1 hypersensitivity*

57

Inflammation of the pulmonary gas exchange system

pneumonia

58

inflammation of the lung

pneumonitis

59

4 ways to classify pneumonia?

exudate
location
cause
route of infection

60

The most common pneumonia seen in animals

Lobular bronchopneumonia

61

Pneumonia that presents as inflammation of the alveolar walls

Interstitial pneumonia

62

Initial inflammation is centered where in bronchopneumonia?

brochiolar-alveolar junction

63

Though they both share cranioventral distribution, Suppurative bronchopneumonia affects _______ while fibrinous bronchopneumonia affects _______

suppurative--individual LOBULES

fibrinous--entire LOBES

64

Comparing fibrinous and suppurative bronchopneumonias, which is more lethal?

Fibrinous (causes more severe lung injury)

65

Most common cause of interstitial pneumonia (think general)

Viruses

*NOT BACTERIA*

66

Routes of exposure for interstitial pneumonia?

aerogenous or hematogenous

*Broncho is just aerogenous*

67

Distribution of interstitial pneumonia?

Diffuse

68

Describe the pathogenesis of ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome)

Endotoxin causes macrophage secretion of cytokines (TNF-a)

TNF-a primes neutrophils and causes them to release their enzyme and radicals while in the vessel

causes diffuse alveolar endothelial damage-->edema and fibrin fill alveolus

69

This pneumonia is characterized by abscess formation in all areas of the lung due to traveling boluses of bacteria

Embolic pneumonia


*Hematogenous exposure*

70

This type of pnuemonia is associated with hard to kill organisms and has a focal/multifocal distribution

Granulomatous pneumonia

*TYPE IV Hypersensitivity*

71

How does eq influenza virus leave the host susceptible to bacterial infection?

causes loss of cells and clumping of cilia, decreasing mucociliary clearance

72

Infections with canine distemper virus are commonly followed by infection with which bacteria?

Toxoplasma gondii

73

In dogs other than greyhounds, what is the outcome of influenza

interstitial pneumonia

*Greyhounds-->hemorrhagic pneumonia*

74

Which form of FIP is associated with high Ab titers?

Wet form

75

A horse that accidentally inhales mineral oil will likely get?

Lipid pneumonia (exogenous)

76

Describe the pathogenesis of acute bovine pulmonary edema and emphysema

cows are suddenly transferred to lush, green pasture

grass contains L-tryptophan which is metabolized to 3-methylindole in the rumen

gas is eructated and inhaled

Clara cells used CYP450 to process the gas and create toxic metabolites

leads to damage of the alveolar wall & its components