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Flashcards in ethics Deck (50)
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1

Benthams ethical theory

- what motivates humans
- principle of utility
- hedonic calculus

2

Jeremy Bentham

- teleological, normative ethical theorist
- his theory was Act utilitarian
- he was a hedonist

3

utilitarianism

teleologically, naturalistic, normative ethical theory that argues the best result is the one that brings the most happiness to the most people

4

motivation of human beings

pain and pleasure are what we base our actions and morals on, and pleasure is the same as goodness

5

principle of utility

an action should be done if it maximises the happiness for the most amount of people

6

the hedonic calculus

Intensity
Duration
Certainty
Remoteness (propinquity)
Fruitfulness (fecundity)
Purity
Extent

7

act based ethics

deontological

8

end based ethics

teleological

9

person based ethics

virtue

10

normative absolutism

- morals are fixed regardless of the context
- treats people with equality

11

normative relativism

- nothing can be defined as right or wrong
- variety in culture effects ethics

12

rule utilitarian

adopts general rules about the kinds of actions that tend to produce happiness to make decision making easier

13

Mill

- the harm principle
- we should be able to do whatever we want as long as it doesn't harm anyone else
- free speech is offensive but not a harm

14

Roger Crisp

- offered the life of Joseph Hayden or an Oyster
- but the oysters life is infinite
- oysters life becomes worthy and pleasurable over time

15

Robert Nozick

- experience machine
- would you plug into alternate reality to only live a life of pleasures
- proves pleasure isn't the ultimate motivation

16

Mills pleasures

higher pleasures - intellectual, social, culture, science
lower pleasures - eating, drinking, sex, resting

17

Kant

an absolutist, deontologist, ethical realist

18

phenomenal realm

- physical world
- empirical knowledge
- heteronomy
- consequential
- changing
- instrumental

19

noumenal realm

- metaphysical
- reason
- autonomy
- intrinsic
- unchanging

20

hypothetical imperative

focuses on the outcome and is used when making a decision not to do with morals

21

categorical imperative

goes beyond consequences and intentions, based on moral decisions

22

beattitudo

flourishing/closeness to God

23

Aquinas

- believed in the world having a teleos given by God
- this was to live according to its own nature
- for humans this was reason

24

eternal law

- absolute part of natural law
- remains the same, no mater what the situation
- God plants it in every rational soul

25

divine law

- commands and teachings found in the Bible
- God sent information about eternal law through this
- he teaches humans how to live

26

natural law

- allows humans to receive eternal law through reason
- marks humans from animals

27

human law

- our response to messages from God
- customs and practices of society
- only a law if its good and in life with divine and natural

28

the key precept

is the synderesis rule which is do good and avoid evil

29

5 primary precepts

1. worship God
2. live in an ordered society
3. reproduce
4. educate
5. preserve life

30

primary precepts

are things that are good and absolute and describe flourishing