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Flashcards in utilitarianism Deck (23)
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1

hedonic calculus

Intensity
Duration
Certainty
Remoteness
Fruitfulness
Purity
Extent

2

Bentham

- teleological, normative ethical theorist
- relative and consequentialist

3

utilitarianism

the act that produces the most happiness for the most people is the best act

4

utility

how useful an actions result is

5

rule utilitarian

adopting general rules about the kinds of action that tend to produce happiness

6

the motivation of human beings

- pain and pleasure are the 2 sovereign masters
- pleasure is sole good
- pain is sole evil

7

Mill

- the harm principle
- we have freedom as long as no one is harmed
- harm and offence are different
- must protect children and adults of not sound mind

8

Roger Crisp

- life of a composer vs an oyster
- infinite life of simple pleasures for oyster
- short life of extreme pleasure for composer

9

strengths of Bentham

- seeks the fairest result
- strong straightforward method
- secular
- universal

10

weakness of Bentham

- can’t measure happiness
- can’t predict the outcome
- reductionist
- subjective
- ignores minority

11

higher pleasures

social and aesthetics pursuits
science
understanding
culture
creativity

12

lower pleasures

eating
drinking
sex
resting

13

Kant's view of ethics

- absolutist
- deontology based (act and duty)
- rationalist
- ethical realist

14

Kant's Axe

a sinister man knocks on your door asking for your friend, is it wrong to lie?
telling the truth is always right no matter what

15

categorical imperative

- an absolute moral duty
- goes beyond consequences
- not based on intentions
= command that applies in all cases

16

hypothetical imperative

applies to someone who wants to achieve a certain ends (not moral decisions)

17

deontology

the ethical value of an act can be judged intrinsically (in itself

18

neumonal realm

- ethics comes from here as this has knowledge beyond experience
- metaphysical
- necessary
- intrinsic
- unchanging

19

Formula of Law of Nature

the act should be the right thing for everyone to do in this situation

20

Formula of the End in Itself

everyone should benefit from the act and should not be using someone as a means to an end

21

Formula of Autonomy

don't act through emotions and intentions

22

Formula of the Kingdom of Ends

act as if you were making a universal rule for everyone

23

weaknesses of Kant

- difficult to apply
- ignores consequences
- ignores other good motivations for acts
- duties can conflict