Ethics at the End of Life Flashcards Preview

MD2002 > Ethics at the End of Life > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ethics at the End of Life Deck (25):
1

Name the 4 ethical principles/pillars.

Respect for Autonomy
Beneficence
Non-maleficience
Justice

2

Using Xs & Ys, define euthanasia.

X intentionally kills or permits Y's death, for Y's benefit

3

Using Xs & Ys, define active euthanasia.

X performs an action which itself results in Y's death

4

Using Xs & Ys, define passive euthanasia.

X allows Y to die by withholding/withdrawing life prolonging treatment

5

Using Xs & Ys, define voluntary euthanasia.

Euthanasia when Y competently requests death himself

6

Using Xs & Ys, define non-voluntary euthanasia.

Euthanasia when Y is not competent to express a preference

7

Using Xs & Ys, define involuntary euthanasia.

Death is against Y's competent wishes, although X permits or imposes death for Y's benefit

8

Using Xs & Ys, define suicide.

Y intentionally kills himself

9

Using Xs & Ys, define assisted suicide.

X intentionally helps Y to kill himself

10

Using Xs & Ys, define murder.

X intentionally kills Y

11

What is the Doctrine of Double Effect (DDE)?

Increasing doses of painkiller given to alleviate pain, but carries the possibility of causing death

12

List some reasons for allowing euthanasia.

Consistency (suicide is legal...)
Passive vs Active (passive = slow death)
Painkillers to lethal injections (DDE is allowed)
Appeal to principles: Autonomy & Beneficence - mercy shown
Benefits of regulation (policing occurs & doctors less vulnerable)

13

List some reasons against allowing euthanasia.

Respect for sanctity of life (isn't all life valuable?)
Palliative care (reasons patients give)
Potential for exploitation/manipulation
Contrary to aims of medicine (doctor/patient relationship)
Slippery slope (voluntary ---> involuntary)

14

In the Netherlands, when is euthanasia permitted?

If incurably ill
If suffering is unbearable
If it is the patient's request
If the termination is performed by the patient's own doctor

15

In the Netherlands, can euthanasia be carried out if the patient is incompetent to consent?

Advance directives are allowed, therefore a surrogate decision maker can gain lasting power of attorney, if aforementioned in the person's will

16

What is the age limit for requesting euthanasia in the Netherlands?

12 years old

17

Are there any exceptional circumstances in which euthanasia is allowed under the age limit in the Netherlands?

Yes, euthanasia of severely disabled newborns is allowed

18

Is euthanasia legal in Switzerland?

Yes, it is condoned/accepted

19

Is assisted suicide legal in Switzerland?

Yes, but the motive must be unselfish - otherwise it is illegal

20

Name two Swiss organisations which help people to die.

EXIT
Dignitas

21

What is the ruling on euthanasia and assisted suicide in Oregon, USA?

Euthanasia: illegal (as with the entire US)
Physician assisted suicide: legal (only applies to residents of Oregon)

22

What is the concept behind the 1967 hospice movement?

A holistic view of the person focusing on pain management - i.e. QUALITY of life as opposed to QUANTITY of life

23

What system is in place regarding organ donation in the UK (bar Wales) and what type of consent is given if organs are donated?

Opt-in
Expressed consent

24

What system is in place regarding organ donation in Wales and what type of consent is given if organs are donated?

Opt-out
Deemed consent

25

List a few reasons why potential donors don't become actual donors.

Refusal by relatives
Organs offered, but not retrieved
Heat stopped beating before brainstem death complete
Medical contraindication to donation (i.e. organs refused)
Relatives not asked about donation
Tests for brainstem death not carried out