Flashcards in Ethics at the End of Life Deck (25):
Name the 4 ethical principles/pillars.
Respect for Autonomy
Using Xs & Ys, define euthanasia.
X intentionally kills or permits Y's death, for Y's benefit
Using Xs & Ys, define active euthanasia.
X performs an action which itself results in Y's death
Using Xs & Ys, define passive euthanasia.
X allows Y to die by withholding/withdrawing life prolonging treatment
Using Xs & Ys, define voluntary euthanasia.
Euthanasia when Y competently requests death himself
Using Xs & Ys, define non-voluntary euthanasia.
Euthanasia when Y is not competent to express a preference
Using Xs & Ys, define involuntary euthanasia.
Death is against Y's competent wishes, although X permits or imposes death for Y's benefit
Using Xs & Ys, define suicide.
Y intentionally kills himself
Using Xs & Ys, define assisted suicide.
X intentionally helps Y to kill himself
Using Xs & Ys, define murder.
X intentionally kills Y
What is the Doctrine of Double Effect (DDE)?
Increasing doses of painkiller given to alleviate pain, but carries the possibility of causing death
List some reasons for allowing euthanasia.
Consistency (suicide is legal...)
Passive vs Active (passive = slow death)
Painkillers to lethal injections (DDE is allowed)
Appeal to principles: Autonomy & Beneficence - mercy shown
Benefits of regulation (policing occurs & doctors less vulnerable)
List some reasons against allowing euthanasia.
Respect for sanctity of life (isn't all life valuable?)
Palliative care (reasons patients give)
Potential for exploitation/manipulation
Contrary to aims of medicine (doctor/patient relationship)
Slippery slope (voluntary ---> involuntary)
In the Netherlands, when is euthanasia permitted?
If incurably ill
If suffering is unbearable
If it is the patient's request
If the termination is performed by the patient's own doctor
In the Netherlands, can euthanasia be carried out if the patient is incompetent to consent?
Advance directives are allowed, therefore a surrogate decision maker can gain lasting power of attorney, if aforementioned in the person's will
What is the age limit for requesting euthanasia in the Netherlands?
12 years old
Are there any exceptional circumstances in which euthanasia is allowed under the age limit in the Netherlands?
Yes, euthanasia of severely disabled newborns is allowed
Is euthanasia legal in Switzerland?
Yes, it is condoned/accepted
Is assisted suicide legal in Switzerland?
Yes, but the motive must be unselfish - otherwise it is illegal
Name two Swiss organisations which help people to die.
What is the ruling on euthanasia and assisted suicide in Oregon, USA?
Euthanasia: illegal (as with the entire US)
Physician assisted suicide: legal (only applies to residents of Oregon)
What is the concept behind the 1967 hospice movement?
A holistic view of the person focusing on pain management - i.e. QUALITY of life as opposed to QUANTITY of life
What system is in place regarding organ donation in the UK (bar Wales) and what type of consent is given if organs are donated?
What system is in place regarding organ donation in Wales and what type of consent is given if organs are donated?