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Flashcards in Everyday life Deck (53):

What kinds of philosophies/idea did the ppl follow which encouraged them to 'seek happiness'?

- the popularity of Epicucreanism (founded by Greek philosopher Epicurious)
- rejected religion, embrace of pleasure and whatever offered in world.

- and the worship of Bacchus, both prevalent in Campania, encourage population to seek happiness and release from the cares of the world.


What contributed to their passion for physical exercise and the baths?

the Roman adage, borrowed from the greek - a sound mind in a sound body.


Visiting the Baths: how many baths have been discovered in each of the Vesuvian cities? what were they?

4 bath complexed in Pompeii: the Stabian baths the oldest, the Forum baths, Central Baths (under contruction during eruption) and Sarno Baths. Also, small privately run bath of Julia felix.

In H, 2 discovered, the suburban (best preserved in any of baths) and Forum baths.


Visiting the Baths: Explain how the calidarium operated?

a hot room with a rectangular heated bath (alverus) at one end and a large circular basin for cold water ablutions between sessions in hot baths. Alverus lined in marble with steps for sitting, hold 10 ppl at time.
Heating system provided by charcoal burning furnace located at back of calidarium. Hot air circulated under marble floor and through air ducts built behind walls. Ceiling had grooves in plaster which collected and channeled down condensation down wall.


Visiting the Baths: According to Seneca, what activities, other than bathing, occurred at baths? Include at least 2 quotes to support ur answer.

Bath houses were bustling, lively places as Seneca described. Men worked out/exercised in bath houses, "grunt of muscle man exercising and jerking those heavy weights around". There were also massages, ball games and act of thieving, "plunging into the pool with a splash of water" (swimming) and "skinny-armpit hair plucker." ( hair plucking/grooming)
Drinking and selling of food also occurred "seller of sausages, pastries and hot fare"


Visiting the Baths: what may have also been done in baths?

pornographic graffiti suggest even some sexual activities took place. In Surburban baths, a back room at end of corridor seem to have been used for sex.


Attending the Theatre: Explain why performances would be heard so well in the theatres?

its features, specifically the Odeon, such as the roof, steep cavea (seating section or auditorium) and size made it acoustically perfect.
the construction of theatre was designed for it, depending on what sort of performance would occur as it was used for serious performances such as concerts, lectures and poetry recitals.


Attending the Theatre: Explain how seating was determined in the theatre?

determined by having a small piece of bone or ivory as a token (Entry free but needed them). Those with image of a bird indicated the highest seats against the wall.


Attending the Theatre: What was the seating plan?

seating divided into 3 horizontal areas, section nearest to stage (ima cavea) reserved for authorities and important visitors, and the highest/furthest away section (summa cavea) were occupied by women (lower class) - up until time of Augustus, women sat with men). Other members of comm. seated in media cavea.


Attending the Theatre: What evidence suggest the actors were popular in Rome?

- actor of late first century BC, Norbanus Sorex, recognised by bronze portrait found in Temple of Isis
- Graffiti, many had fan clubs, such as much acclaimed Actius and Paris.
- Most popular was Lucius Domitius Paris, favourite of Emperor Nero


Attending the Theatre: What types of performances occurred at theatres?

- traditional Greek and Roman tragedy and comedy, to pantomime were extremely popular. ONly the upper class appreciated greek and roman tragedies and comedies, with performances infrequent and solely for special groups.
Most popular with majority of ppl were Oscan farces (light humorous play - Atellanae) originate in Campania town Atella, and mime and pantomime introduced C1st BC.


Attending the Theatre: What sort of performance was Atellanae? ancient mimes? Pantomime?

- had bawdy characters, crude dialogue with unexpected situation.

- short amusing plots, ludicrous actions, obscene gestures. No masks like traditional theatre, performed barefoot and wore striking clothes

- based on mythological themes, singers/musicians accompanying actors = no words spoken, hence actors wore wings and diff coloured clothes to recognise character age and status.


Training at the Palaestra: What did every roman town have? what was used for?

palaestra, both swimming pool surrounded by trees.
traditional sports in palaestra: athletics, wrestling, javelin and discus throwing


Training at the Palaestra: what did it most likely feature?

sport ground at P and H, feature statue of Hypgeia, goddess of health, as well as statues of young men with ideal male body.


Spectacle at Amphitheatre: what was held in it?

evidence of gladiatorial contests and wild animal hunts in P, from numerous graffitis, wall paintings and reliefs in public and private buildings.


Spectacle at Amphitheatre: what was widespread during Nero's reign?

paintings of Muneria Gladiatoria (glad. games) in private homes widespread, but most disappeared.


Amphitheatre: when was it built in P?



Amphitheatre: how many seats?

20 000 - ppl from countryside and town around P, regularly attended performances


Amphitheatre: where was it?

built in south east of city - less congested


Amphitheatre: what did it have?

seating sections depending on gender, status and class


Amphitheatre: how is the arena accessed?

2 paved vaulted tunnels


Amphitheatre: what was provided in theatre for shade?



Barracks, quadriporticos, schola armaturium

- barracks 62 AD, held members of galdiators, 15-20 men
- quadriporticos was a gladiatroal accomation in Nero's reign, possibly due to destruction of barracks from earthquake and increase in gladiators
- schola armaturium - depository of gladiatorial armour or school for 'Pompeian youth'.


Who were the gladiators?

slaves, prisoners of war, freedmen, criminals condemned to death
regarded as socially inferior, also brutality and tench of death associated with them


what sources mentions women fighting in arena as well?



Who was expected to full/partly fund production of spectacles?

games' sponsors, editores munerum


What occurred at the amphitheatre?

wild animal hunts and gladiatorial contests


what do u call the games' sponsor, owners of the gladiators and program?

- editores munerum
- lanista
- edica numeria


How long is the spectacle at amphitheatre?

from dawn to dusk


What was mentioned when promoting games?

painted on walls and distributed pamphlets on streets.
usually name of gladiator not mentioned unless popular and add prestige and increase turnout e.g. "felix will ifhgt the bears'


Drinking and Gambling: what games/gambling carried out and where?

games of chance with dice, astragals (bones), type of chess boards and pawns carried out in taverns and small wine bars.

also gambled on gladiatorial contests and cockfights


Evidence of drinking and gambling?

frescoes, painting in tavern owned by Salvius showed 2 men arguing over game of dice


evidence of passion for pleasure in P and H?

graffiti relating to gambling, drinking, sex, celebrity gladiators and actors, as well as no. of buildings associated with sport, entertainment and relaxation


why did ppl visit the baths (thermae? what is layout?

social occasion as well as opportunity to take care of self/spiritually
generally divided into section for men and women. It no separate baths, attend at diff hours


decoration at bath houses?

wall/ceilings covered in elegant stucco and floor in mosaic, often marine theme


what are the 5 bath elements/rooms?



What is the vestibule?

in form of exercise year with portico



changing and waiting room with benches and small niches or shelves for storing clothes



room with circular cold bath



warm room used as transition space so bathers could adjust to temp changes.
sometimes off tepidarium was laconicum - sweating room sauna



hot room with rectangular heated bath (alverus - held 10 ppl at time) and large circular basin (labrum) for cold water bath between sessions in hot bath.


how long are baths opened?

midday till night, evidence by discovery of hundreds of lamps in Forum Baths and Stabian Baths


activities at bath?

bathe, exercise, massage, conduct business, socialise, engage prostitutes, play dice, in winter = keep warm


what did they wear in bath?

women wore 2 piece/modest clothes
men naked or wore trunks


evidence of popularity of theatre?

theatre complexes at P and H, no. of theatrical motifs used in decoration of well to do houses, graffiti written by fans about local and visiting actors


theatre of H?

held 2 500 ppl, first discovered was perfect condition but looters took marble.


what was theatrical performances organised for?

religious festivities, celebrate dedication of a monument/achievement


what did spectators bring on long performances?

own cushions


what did women take part in although no female actors?

mimes and pantomimes


who appreciated the greek style comedy and tragedy?

by 1st Century AD, only upper class, performances infrequent and put solely for special groups.

wigs and masks that amplified voice worn


what kind of status/popularity could gladiators get?

graffiti shows some had celebrity status = fav of crowd, popular by women, even by upperclass matrons


where was most of food found?

at house of Vestals


what kind of food did they eat and how do we know?

collection of recipes by Alpicius
such as meat, seafood, poultry and produce
imported spices
fish sauce