Flashcards in Plans and Streetscapes of P and H Deck (31):
what is P and H?
a relatively compact town
What is size and area excavated at P?
covers 660 000m^2 (66 hectare)
What is size and area excavated at H?
harder to estimate area as only 4 blocks completely unearthed. Some say equivalent to 1/3 of P or less than 120 000m^2 (12 hectares)
What did both towns have?
H was more modest, whilst P enclosed by 3.2km wall defensive line.
Pompeii: layout of road and buildings reflect?
greek influence - regular geometric grid system
Pompeii: what is the city accessed by?
seven gates, five focused on roads to other towns in Campanian region based on name of gates.
the oldest - Stabian Gate
Pompeii: population in Ad79?
Pompeii: What are the 3 main streets? where did it lead?
Via Di Nola
led to 4 main gates - the town was walled for security, with watch towers
Pompeii: What evidence can be seen being done to the walls during 1st century AD?
During 1st C AD, large stretches of wall knocked down to expand and build more houses.
Pompeii: Explain the grid system?
main axial roads (decumani), crossed by minor roads (cardini) creating blocks (insulae), about 35m by 90m (vary in size)
Pompeii: describe the main road?
St of Abundance/Via dell' Abbondanza 8.5 m wide, from Forum to Sarno Gate, close to ampitheatre.
Lined with some of the best preserved buildings.
Pompeii: How wide were the roads?
varied from 3.5m to 4.5m wide, many not wide enough for 2 way traffic.
Pompeii: what was the roads/st made of? What do the roads leading to the Forum have?
paved in blocks of volcanic stone, many leading to Forum have deep ruts = evidence of large volume of wheeled traffic in area.
Pompeii: raised footpaths and stepping stones for?
strategically placed for crossing (to avoid wetting feet) and spaced for wheel traffic.
Pompeii: Water system?
Network of drains in Forum, but drainage water flowed down streets to outlet outside walls.
Fountains (communal water supply) usually located at street intersections - supplied either by pipes or water cisterns.
Herculaneum: Contrast to P?
alot smaller in size and compact (buildings close)
Herculaneum: what does the layout show and 2 main streets?
shows Greek influence
2 main streets running E to W, Decumanus Maximus and Decumanus Inferior.
Herculaneum: minor streets?
fewer minor streets than P - 3 identified Cardo III, Cardo IV, Cardo V
Herculaneum: What is there less evidence of than P?
wheeled traffic = less commercial/trading activity
Herculaneum: Why didn't they have stepping stones?
excellent drainage system, storm drain connected to extensive underground sewer.
Herculaneum: Similarities and difference to P? why is it hard to compare?
H have no gates or an ampitheatre.
Both have palaestra
Only 30% excavated, hence don't know full layout/size of town, harder to compare to P.
Herculaneum: what kind of wall did it have?
Herculaneum: what are the 3 channels for water system?
- sewed town's main public baths and several houses
- 2nd one similar purpose as above
- 3rd linked to chutes that flowed from latrines and kitchens of homes above.
Water Supply: both cities supplied with?
public amenities e.g. water supply, public baths and latrines
Water Supply: where does water come from?
water for public and private via Pompeian branch of Augustan aqueduct.
Flowed day and night through water fountains, providing those that cant afford water connected to their homes.
Pompeii: What was land used for other than urban?
Included cultivated areas and open spaces where polyculture (growing crops) practiced: fruits, vines and veggies.
Evidence: remains of several commercial vineyard and large orchard found.
- plain and simple with small entrances
- generally no windows as there was large amounts of traffic and many pedestrians, as well as the smells and noises of the streets
- courtyards/gardens in the centre of houses
- provided for pedestrian use while still giving access to wheeled traffic.
- people could cross the road without stepping into sewerage that overflowed in the gutter when it rained.
- present on busier, wider streets (traffic)
- deep grooves in the roads can be seen indicating the volume of traffic
- they functioned like train tracks, directing wheeled carts which had not form of steering.
- roman paving technique
- polygonal blocks of basalt.
- streets ranged from 2.5 m to 7m wide.
- fit together with gaps as small as 2 or 3 millimetres.