Flashcards in INfleunce of greek and egyptian cultures Deck (27):
what was p and h heavily influenced by?
greek (hellenic) and Hellenistic cultures of eastern mediterranean, inc. Egypt
Where was greek influence form?
from greek colonies established in southern Italy. 6 - 7 th century BC
where was hellenistic influence from?
through Rome's conquest of and trade with the Hellenistic kingdoms of Egypt and East from 2nd Century BC.
Trade between Campania and Egyptian part city of Alexandria major role in influence
Influence of Greek in architecture?
- typical greek cities featured a marketplace, temples, theatres and a palaestra
- earlier, triangular forum was a greek style space
- at H, the use of greek decorative columns is evident
- H paleastra shows Greek influence in decoration and scale
- peristyles gardens based on Greek design
-use of greek capitals on columns e.g. House of Vetti replicated 3 orders of Greek columns
- geometric grid of cities.
- peristyle gardens
INfluence of Greek in Art:
- later style of wall paintings featured Greek architectural motifs and copies of Greek mythological paintings.
- theatres and palaestras in P reflect Greek influence in statuary ornamentation, frequently copies of Greek originals
- 'Alexander the Great' mosaic (house of Faun) - Greek subject
- decorative use of sphinxes and obelisks in peristyle gardens
- Greek themes in frescoes and mosaics
- villa of mysteries depict activities of the Cult of Bacchus
Influence of Greek religion?
- adaptation of Greek pantheon of Gods, worshiped privately and publicly in P and H
- Mystery Cults of Dionysus/Bacchus from greece
- Greek Epicurean philosophy popular in Campania
- image of Hercules (Herakles) found in both cities
- adoption/adaptation of Greek gods, Zeus = Jupiter, Hera = Juno, Athena= Minerva, Aphrodite = VEnus and Apollo
Influence of Egyptian art: come mostly from Pompeii as cosmopolitan
- egyptian elements in statues of Egyptian deities such as Isis
- Egyptian scenes, especially the Nile filled with ducks, crocodiles, hippos, in wall paintings and mosaic, e.g. House of Faun = artwork done by skilled Alexandria artisans
- Scenes of Nile and Egyptian landscape subject to of many artworks
What does Wallace Hadrill state about influence of Egyptian to art?
could have been a large influx of Egyptian craftsmen after rome's conquest of Egypt. Coping of Egyptian symbols and motifs
Influence of Egyptian religion:
- Worship of Egyptian deities: Isis, Osiris
How did cult of Isis begin?
possibly came with foreign Egyptian women to P.
What did the temple of Isis conduct everyday? What did it feature?
two daily services and may have been open all day.
featured Egyptian style landscapes, exotic beasts and scenes from Greek and Egyptian mythology
What is done throughout year to honour Isis?
two major festivals
Evidence of Temple of Isis significance/importance?
one of the first buildings to be restored after the AD 62 earthquake
images of Isis found even in houses on Lararia
some houses had garden shrines to Egyptian gods - e.g.g House of Julia Felix
What are the orders of architecture?
the doric order
the ionic order
what is the doric order associated with?
doric culture of mainland Greece. thought they original derive form wooden architecture.
What do doric order look like?
plain and sober in style, but sometimes massive and heavy.
rest directly on level with no base.
at top, simple convex swelling makes the 'capital' or head of column.
Evidence of Doric order?
at P, part of forum's portico exhibits Doric culture, as well as peristyle of the House of the Tragic Poet.
What is the Ionic order associated with?
Ionian culture of Athens, the Greek islands and the coast of Asia Minor.
What do Ionic order look like/features?
lighter and more ornate than Doric columns and often elaborately decorated.
sit on base which is often highly ornamented.
What are the flutings on the Ionic order like?
flutings on shafts are usually fine and deep, and the capital curls over on each side.
Evidence of ionic order?
colonnade surrounding Temple of Apollo at P as well as House of Galba at H.
How was Corinthian order developed?
development of Hellenistic culture, although has little association with Corinth.
First found in Arcadia, Athens and Asia Minor.
What did the Corinthian order look like?
fluted like the ionic order, topped by capital which resembles a bunch of vegetation = can be very elaborately carved.
Romans favoured this order for columns on temples
Evidence of Corinthian order?
the temple of Fortuna Augusta and Samnite House at H.
What do the evidence of three orders in both H and P reveal?
the architecture in both cities reflect a strong Greek influence from the earliest days of settlements when nearby greek colonies were the cultural leaders.
Influence of Odeon?
it is a small covered half theatre and had 'stamp of the late Hellenistic architectural tradition'. typical Greek cities featured this and tradition Greek/Roman tragedy and comedy was extremely popular in P.