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Flashcards in issues of conservation and recontruction Deck (29):

First paragraph: who carries the overall responsibility for the issues of conservation and restoration?

The italian superintendanza


First paragraph: what did the italian superintendanza introduce?

higher entrance fees which allow access to other sites as well as Pompeii which reduces concentration and Pompeii.


First paragraph: on all archaeological sites, the superintendenza is responsible for...

the majority of stabilising and restoration projects such as the House of Mosaics.


Second Paragraph: what is the Italian responsibility also?

includes the management of tourist access.


Second Paragraph: why is management of tourist access needed?

while tourism remains as part of Guzzo's policy of making the site accessible to all, increased numbers have placed pressure on the fragile remains.


Second Paragraph: what have been part of the Italian contribution to site maintenance and management?

temporary and permanent barriers to tourist damage, board walkways over mosaic floors and directed tourist traffic flow


Second Paragraph: what have italian conservators working in the most signi. buildings, including the Suburban baths of Herculaneum, in both towns done?

replaced gaps with light coloured concrete to prevent further plaster pealing and have placed covers over vulnerable remains such as ancient graffiti slogans and vulnerable buildings.


third paragraph: what is the third area of italian contributions?

concerns the overall management of international contributions.


third paragraph: what have reduced the occurrence of poor site management and provided additional source of funding and expertise?

coordinated stabilisation and preservation plan involving arch. teams from all interested countries such Britain, Us and Sweden


third paragraph: what does Guzzo state as his goal?

"Our responsibility lies primarily in taking all necessary measures to slow the inevitable deterioration and conserve as much as possible for future generations."


third paragraph: what is this coordinated effort hoping to achieve?

the goal to preserve and conserve P and H.


fourth paragraph: At H, what did the british School of rome announce?

announced that an $18 million preservation project will be launched. The Herculaneum Conservation Project 2001, which has been a significant step towards creating a unified goal in conserv. and restoration.


fourth paragraph: what is the aim of the H conservation project?

prevent the decay hat afflicts all parts of the site through measures such as using scaffolding to stabilise collapsing structures, consolidate crumbling plaster surfaces and disintegrating mosaics by using water permeable fixatives to help stabilise the pigment and prevent it from flaking off, eradicating weeds and excluding pigeons. In 2004, in response to problem of pigeons, proposed using predatory falcons to prevent bird from nesting in area - 'territorial deterrence'.


fourth paragraph: what will the measure of HCP help do?

to reduce decay, but will will also help to develop a conservation strategy to safeguard the survival of site.


fourth paragraph: what has the HCP been a significant step towards?

creating a more efficient preservation and conservation program as it aims to prevent all sources of deterioration and also develop and strategy which will ensure the site will continue to survive.


fifth paragraph: what has HCP also done?

addressed many of issues of long term maintenance of buildings, including a water drainage network and replacing vulnerable modern roofing to make no. of buildings safer.


fourth paragraph:what problem was it faced it with relating to water? (HCP)

it was faced with a serious groundwater problem.
Ground water and malfunctioning drainage system in modern Ercolano brought steady seepage of water thru arch. remains, eroding masonry and brought salt out of wall, destroying structures and frescoes.
- > solve by restoring ancient water drainage network.


quote by Henri De Saint-Banquet on Pompeii destruction:

" Just when P was being rediscovered, it began to die its second death."


What is P and H registered in?

despite UNESCO registering it in World Heritage Sites, continue to collapse and deteriorate


events that occurred that showed importance of construction/preservation

allied bombing in 1943 and major earthquake of 1980 causes buildings in P and H to collapse


what are some things that are leading to destruction of site?

- exposure of buildings (interior and exterior) to weather such as sun and rain, fading colours of frescoes and deteriorating carbonised objects
- pollution - acid rain
- weeds growing over ruins, clogging gutters and sewers
- roots undermine foundation of houses, destabilise walls and loosen mosaic floors when tried pull out.
- insect and birds weaken structure
- pigeons at H nest i site and acidic droppings have corrosive effect on floors and wall decoration
- feral and stray dogs, fouling and damaging footpaths, roads and walls, but also aggressive towards tourists


how many tourist visits H and P?

H- 500 000
P- 2.5 million per year


Impact of tourism?

human activity, both deliberate (vandalism, graffiti, theft) and accidental (brushing against walls, stepping on exposed plumbing and floor mosaics) has been major factor in gradual decline of both sites since their excavations.


What are some other related problems to humans on site?

garbage disposal and pollution


Since when have conservation issues been addressed with increasing success?

since appointment of Pier Guzzo as director of Superintendanza of Naples


fifth paragraph: what is the via dell' abbondanza project?

documentation effort


fifth paragraph: what does the via dell' abbondanza project use?

high def. digital photography and geomatic ratification, able to create accurate orthographic photomosaics


fifth paragraph: what does the via dell'abbondanza provide from their methods?

view of buildings frontages that could not be seen, the photomosaics enable to document the variety and condition of any structures along street


fifth paragraph: what can be seen by comparing images of past excavators for the via dell' abbondanza project?

can measure disintegration over time.
show how much building fabric and decoration has beet lost in recent years
alarming facts = mission to document as much of site as possible before disappear.