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Flashcards in Religion Deck (69):

How many temples found in H and P?

0 at H, 10 at P


what are the 2 main functions of temples?

- house images of gods and objects of worship
- place where ritual of worship carried out.


list 4 temples:

-capitoline triad
- apollo
- vespasian (Genius of Augustus)
- Isis


What are the 5 household gods?

Bacchus + Mercury



protector of household



protector of stores



generating force of paterfamilias



goddess of health and altars


Bacchus and Mercury?

god of money
patron of commerce
sometimes added to altar


what is the tombs called?

Necropolis - city of dead/cemetery
tombs usually for family as whole, not individual


how many necropolises outside walls of P?

8, close to gates


Where is the most impressive necropolis found?

outside Nuceria and H gates


evidence of high frequency of visitors to necropolis?

benches, gardens and graffiti


How were most ppl buried?

most ppl cremated, ashs preserved in terracotta/glass urns


Who carried out the burial?

paterfamilias carried out correct death ritual in home for fam member, slaves, freedmen/women


What was provided for those in need of financial support?

Burial clubs for poor and those without fam to be buried properly.


What did tombs look like?

varied from plain chamber to elaborate monument with sculptural decoration.
it is chance to remind ppl of deceased's achievements and status


What are the types of tombs?



What is the largest tomb found?

tomb of Eumachia at P


What is religion like in P and H?

- not one simple set of beliefs or one god (multi faceted)
- the evidence reveals a complex webs of various belieds and traditions
- reflects the cosmopolitan nature of city -> diff cultures bring diff beliefs


What are the evidence of religion?

- temples
- altars privates and public
- lararia with lares in houses
- frescoes of ancestors or mythical scenes/rituals
- graffiti


Categories/aspects: Classifying religion

- Private VS public worship
- official or state VS Mystery cults
- Greek/Roman (GraecoRoman) VS Egyptian/ Near Eastern


What was the official religion?

- centred on the tradition Roman gods (derived form Greek counterparts)
- Capitoline Triad - Jupiter, Minerva, Juno
- Hercules or Herakles - founder of H
- Apollo
- Venus (Aphrodite) - patron god of P


2 most popular Mystery religion? How spread?

- two of the most popular at P : Isis and Bacchus/Dionysus
- brought by merchants, soldiers, slaves


Who was the mystery religion popular with?

popular first with women and lower classes = Isis popularity rose and participate


What was Villa of Mysteries dedicated to?

Cult of Bacchus/Dionysus


Private or household worship mostly done in?

Lararium (shrine) with lares figurines
conduted by the paterfamilias
household gods selected by household guardians


What was done in Atrium with Lararium?

Rites of Passage; birth, marriage, death (ceremonies done in Atrium)
Ancestor worship.


Identify the origin of the capitoline gods (Jupiter, Minerva, Juno)

the Greek Zeus, Hera and Athena
their temple was modelled on the Capitolium in Rome and was the symbol of Rome's power in P from the time it became a Roman colony 80BC.


explain the presence of the god of hercules in the Campanian area. Why was Hercules a popular figure in area?

he is regarded as founder of H (worshipped from early date) and at P he was popular from his cults traders and sailors because of his legendary journeys.
Also because during C1stAD, emperors, notably Nero, liked be to regarded as reincarnations of Hercules.


Evidence of Hercules?

not temples but images and statues of hum
P - statue in temple of Isis and image in Triangular Forum
H- image sin houses/wine bars and near public fountain


Who was Apollo? When and how did he come known in Campania?

Apollo was greek oracular god, introduced into P during C6th BS from Cumae, leading Greek city on the Bay of Naples.
Augustus adopted Apollo as his patron and associated this brilliant god of light with his new 'golden Age'.
Nero embraced him as god of music
temple built on western side of Forum


Outline the development of the figure and status of god of Venus.

Roman equivalent of Greek Aphrodite, goddess of love.

- worshipped pre roman days as nature goddess born from waters -> sailors sought her protection and her temple stood on terrace looking out to sea.
-Establishment of P as roman colony in 80BC, Venus = patron goddess of city - expected to bring well being and success in everything to community.
- all classes of ppl worshiped her
- propitiated to get rid of rival and to grant success in love.


What kinds of evidence do we have for Venus in Campania?

paintings, depictions, frescoes = often reclining in seashell
temple of venus


How was the emperor worshipped at P?

- cult of emperor's genius first introdo. at time of Augustus as form of respect -> Augustales recruited to supervise cult
- in temple of lares, statue of genius Augustus alongside 10 dancers represented Lares
- temple of Genius of Augustus (vespasian)= originally dedicated to goddess Fortuna but 3BC, epithet 'Augusta' added, associating new imperial regime = contained statues of him and imperial family
- Edifice of Eumachia, sponsored by Eumachia to celebrate Julian clan which Augustus belonged to.


What were the Lares Publici?

Protectors of the crossroads (compita) = became linked to emperor himself


how was the sacrificial banquet carried out?

- offering of animals done by strict ritual
1. presiding priest with head veiled made everyone silent and began ritual slaughter by coating sacrificial knife and head of animal with salted flour or mola salsa.
2. Entrails, dedicated to god, were burned and offered up, rest of flesh divided among participants according to status.


Explain the term 'Hellenistic'. How did the Hellenistic religion affect the religion in Campania?

- incorporation of a mix and Greek and Eastern culture ruled by the successors of Alexander the Great
- Introduced diff cults (Isis, Cybele, Mithras), and Dionysian mysteries by merchants, slaves, soldiers


Why were many ppl attracted to the 'Mystery' religions?

- popular for those seeking more emotional involvement with god, promised devotees happiness, salvation and resurrection throughout initiation.
- as official Roman religion practices tended to be impersonal and the 'decrees of Fate and Fortune' oppressive.


How do we know about he popularity of such foreign cults?

by motifs, objects and paintings associated with foreign cults found in private homes.


Provide a brief overview of the Osiris myth:

- Seth deceive Osiris saying whoever fit in tomb would rule
- Isis was sister/wife of Osiris (king of Egypt), who locked away in chest by jealous brother Seth and cast into Nile.
- Isis found clues and pregnant to dead Osiris by magi and gave birth to son, Horus. Took husband's body back to Egypt where Seth found it and cut it up to 14 pieces, scattered all over Egypt.
- Isis and sister, Nepthys, search for pieces with help of Anubis and Thoth, and pieced them together.
- Turned themselves into birds, fanned life back into Osiris, and became God of Underworld.


What god if Osiris/Serapis, Isis and Anubis?

Osiris/Serapis - promised resurrection
Isis - offered happiness, salvation and consolation from suffering
Anubis - guided soul to next life


Based on the Osiris myth, why might Isis have been appealing to the ppl of P?

- Daily rebirth - commit themselves to leading purer lives (2nd chance)
- Protection for all sailors
- promised happiness, resurrection


Why do historians believe that the Isis cult was highly significant in P?

the no. of outstanding paintings, decorations and furniture found in Temple of Isis and fact that it was one of the first buildings to be totally restored after the earthquake indicate significance and importance/
Even spread to elite e.g. Julia Felix, had shrines dedicated to goddess in garden.


Who is Dionysus and who is his Roman counterpart?

- Greek god of fertility and wine, swept through greece C6th BC, 300 years later popular in Southern Italy as cult of Bacchus.
- He is identified in wall painting with vine leaves in his hair carrying a staff tipped with a pine cone, often accompanied by satyrs.


What types of activities were followers of the Cult of Bacchus thought to have done?

- while under the influence of wine, worshippers committed all kinds of debaucheries.
- "Men,... would utter prophecies with frenzied body convulsions; matrons attired as Bacchantes... carrying blazing torches would run down to the Tiber, plunge their torches in and bring them out still alight" Livy
- drank and dined


Why did the cult of Bacchus offer?

escape from worldly reality into mystic communion with the god and promise of a blessed life after death.


According to Livy, how did the cult of Bacchus spread?

spread 'like a contagious disease' and 'to the religious content were added the pleasures of wine and feasting'


Describe 2 painted scenes from Villa of the Mysteries:

depicted rituals/initiation associated with cult of Bacchus

1. central panel - reclining Bacchus flanked by Silenus and young satyr and woman removing phallus, symbol of fertility, from basket.
2. winged female, raising long whip (perhaps as initiation before scared marriage?)
women an bridal yellow making preparation, another with veil over head = priestess?
4 other female involved in sacrificial rite accompanied by Silenus playing lyre and faun playing pip, while another woman, hands raised, while around in orgiastic dance


What were the household lares and where were they worshipped?

protectors of households ( originally, protector of farm and its boundaries)

worshipped at Lararium in every home and some shops, a shrine to Lares
- wall niches with painted black walls and figurines
- an aedicule, 3D miniature temple set on a podium
- wall painted to look like an aedicule with household gods painted


What did the ppl believe about life after death?

- souls of dead believed to live an after death in a world of malevolent and benevolent forces.
- A family's ancestors, represented by wax masks kept in houses, honoured on every family occasion of family lineage and worn at family funerals as link between living and dead
- except those involved in mystery/salvation cults, most ppl prob had no clear concept of life after death = constantly reminded of brevity of life
- graffiti urged ppl to live life full as short
- skeletons/skulls common image in dining areas and engraved on drinking cups.


List the ceremonies which took place in the Atrium?

- sacrifice of incense and cake made at family shrine when newborn accepted into family by paterfamilias = relatives/client/friends os master gather in Atrium to congratulate parents and wish children goof fortune
- Rite called conclamatio marked death of member of family. Body laid out in Atrium for visitors to show respect.
- fam/slaves gather to make offerings of a wreath or portion of meal to lares and say prayers for prosperity/protection of all within household.
-> crumbs of floor left as offering, special occasions, lamb sacrificed


How did ppl of P ensure fertility to all?

- erect phallus, symbol of virility and fertility found everywhere in houses as decorative bas-reliefs and even on lamps and children's rattles
- Priapus -god of fertility and abundance, located inside the entrance of house of wealthy Vetti brothers, to ward of evil eye and bring prosperity to owners
- walnuts were thrown over couple to wish them fertility.


Who was Jupiter?

- protector of state
- greek Zeus counterpart
- sky god


Significance of Jupiter in P and H?

- game held in honour of capitoline triad gods on 1st day of September every year.
- Main god of P and Rome = roman colony


Evidence of significance in P and H of Jupiter?

- capitoline triad temple dominated Pompeian forum
- after earthquake AD62, recent work show that it was repaired and in working order when eruption occurred (important)


Who was Juno?

protector of women
Greek Hera

temple dedicated to triad


Who was Minerva?

patroness of craftsmen
- Greek Athena

temple dedicated to triad
mentioned in lararium prayers



Greek oracular god
protector of p in Pre-roman period


Evidence of Apollo?

- temple of apollo
- original temple built before Roman settlement, show long significance = entire temple was out of line to rest of forum



- Greek Aphrodite
- goddess of love
- protectress of P/patron goddess with established of P as Roman colony in 80BC.
- popular godess
- bring well being and success


Evidence of Venus?

paintings = images in various forms
temple of venus - restoration taking place during eruption
original cult statue of temple lost


Hercules (herakles)?

regarded as founder of H

no temple, only images and statues
P: image in triangular forum and state in temple of Isis
H - images in houses, wine bars and near public fountain, and status in peristyle of House of the Deer
- Painting from house of Vetti in P



- patron of sailors
- giver of life, protector of family, goddess of healing and deliverance


isis significance?

- P and H heavily relied on sea trade, hence Isis compatible choice as goddess.
- popular among saves and freedmen but grew popular and wealth
- cult widespread and influential
- reveal foreign cults inP and H were accepted and prominent within civilization.
- popular with those wanting emotional connection and being more compassionate


evidence of ISis?

- temple of Isis
- House of Julia felix and Faun both have paintings
- inscription identify funding donated to cult of isis by freedmen
- frescoes depict ceremonies took place in cult - > popular among woman as priestess depiction



greek god of wine and fertility

A scene from the Dionysian wall painting in villa of Mysteries
cult of Dionysus
Dionysian themes popular, decorations adopting this hedonistic theme.



Greek Hermes
prosperity and protection


eveidence of Mercury

lararium = depend on needs of household
- depiction of drinking horns and wine buckets symbolise offering of worship and praise towards Mercury and Dionysus