Flashcards in Evolutionary Trends, hominid evolution Deck (58):
Order of evolutionary ancestry
Homos (erectus, neanderthalensis)
Homo sapiens (modern humans)
Structure, physiological process or form of behaviour that makes an organism better able to survive and reproduce in a particular environment
Adaption to skull?
Reduced prognathism- skull on vertebrae, reduction of teeth size, flat profile
hominins: centrally underneath skull, skull balanced in vertebrae, limited muscles required.
Apes: Foramen magnum – Posteriorly positioned foramen magnum under the base of the skull, pushes the centre of gravity in front of the pelvis
Adaption of the spinal column
-Hominins ‘s’ shaped spine - low Center of gravity. S shape curvature brings vertebral column directly under weight of skull. Improves balance in upright position. While the lumbar vertebrae is thick & wedge shaped from front to back supporting the upper body weight.
Gorilla- C shaped - high Center of gravity. C shaped curvature of the spine projects centre of gravity forward of the pelvis/ for improved balance in the quadrupedal position.
Adaption of Jaw?
A- protruding jaw
H- flat allowing for skull to balance on top of spine because weight in front of foremen magnum = weight behind
Adaption of pelvis?
Hominins: bowl shaped and broader supporting abdominal organs, transferring weight, helping with childbirth and pregnancy and providing muscle attachments for large gluteal muscles
Gorilla- elongated flat pelvis Allows hind limbs to move under centre of gravity which is in front of the pelvis.
Adaption of hip and femur
- head of femur large and fits into acetabulum (hip socket) of the pelvis because pelvis is broad. femurs converge towards the knees ensuring:
Weight distribution and creating the carrying angle. Remaining close to the central axis of the body when walking = stability, rotation from lower leg and foot, stride instead of swaying walk
Gorilla: Hip joint located behind head/ trunk
femur positioned vertically so no carrying angle
Hominin: pelvis shape makes hip sockets further apart and femur sit in acetabulum So joint is more forward = carrying angle
Adaption of knee?
Hominin knee - bicondylar angle bringing feet in line with Center of gravity when walking
= weight transferred from femur to outer hinge so outer ligament is larger and stronger than inner ligament
no energy required to stand
Naturally resistance to knee bending backwards
Adaption of foot?
Ape- opposable big toe + knuckle walking
Hominin- lost opposablity; big toe pushes off
Structured to transfer weight equally
Two arched ( longitudinal and transverse)
Adaption of centre of gravity
- longer human legs= lower centre of gravity
- lower centre of gravity = increased stability when moving bipedally or standing erect
What is muscle tone?
Partial contraction of skeletal muscles and is an essential element for maintaining upward stance.
Human brain vs ape brain?
H- more dev. Cerebral cortex (more convulsions and SA )
- average 1350cm cubed
A- 400 to 500cm cubed
What are endoclast?
Impressions inside skull made from rock or some other solid materials
Grasping; refers to the digits of a hand or a foot that can grasp an object. Prehensibility is the ability to grasp objects
Origin, location and cranial capacity of Australopithecines afarensis ‘lucy’
3.9 mya- 3 mya
Cranial capacity of 375-550
Origin, location and cranial capacity of Australopithecus africanus?
3.0- 2 mya
Cranial capacity: 420-500
Origin, location and cranial capacity of Paranthropus robustus?
East and South Africa
2.5- 1.1 mya
Cranial capacity: 500-545
Origin, location and cranial capacity of Homo habilis?
2.4- 1.5 mya
Cranial capacity of 500-800
Origin, location and cranial capacity of Homo erectus?
Asia and europe
1 mya- 300 000ya
Cranial capacity of 1000-1250
Origin, location and cranial capacity of Homo neanderthalensis?
Europe and Asia
230000- 28000 ya
Cranial capacity of 1450
Origin, location and cranial capacity of archaic Homo sapiens?
Africa Asia and Europe
Cranial capacity of 1100-1400
Location, origin and cranial capacity of modern Homo sapiens?
Cranial capacity 1350
Define binomial system
The system of naming organisms using the generic (genus) and (species) names to describe a species
A catergory of biological classification; one of the principle divisions of a kingdom; consists of one of more classes
What is a phylogenetic tree
A diagram showing evolutionary relationships between related organisms; also called a dendrogram
A category in the classification of organisms; the order of classification between class and family
What is in hominidae ( family level)
Hominins includes all modern and extinct chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans and and humans
What is in hominins ( tribe level)
Includes extinct ancestors of humans and modern humans
The group consisting of all modern & extinct Great Apes (that is, modern humans, chimpanzees, gorillas & orang-utans plus all their immediate ancestors).
The group consisting of modern humans, extinct human species & all our immediate ancestors.
Slow gradual change in characteristics of a species. Great Apes Humans Relative size of cerebral cortex
Relative size of cerebral cortex
Apes v Humans
Smaller cranial capacity
foremen magnum towards back
Prominent brow ridges
Less rounded cranium
Larger cranial Capacity
No Sagittarius crest
foramen magnum moved centrally below
Reduced brow ridges
Mobility of digits
apes v humans
Less opposable first digit
Opposable big toe
Shorter thumb relative to other digits
More opposable first digit
Non-opposable big toe
Longer thumb relative to other digits
apes v humans
Apes v humans
Larger molars & canines 5. Diastema
U shape dental arcade
Smaller molars & canines
Parabolic dental arcade "
Adaptions to ribcage
reduced size/ weight
Gorilla: Apes have a rounder, barrel shaped rib cage, pushes the centre of gravity in front of the pelvis. It is also large to support abdominal organs.
Hominins: pelvis supports abdominal organs
What is the carrying angle
Carrying angle- convergence of femur at the knee
So weight is distributed to the center of the body
= increased stability when moving
= striding gait = body rotates towards midline as walk pulling leg into a straight line.
A member of an order of mammals that includes lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, monkeys, apes and humans
Culture – The range of learned behaviour patterns acquired by a species/population
Trends – Increase in the variety of tools made. Increase in the complexity of manufacturing process of the tool. Increase in the quality of workmanship. Increase in the range of materials used to produce tools. Increase in the number of different activities tools are used for
Tool culture used by Australopithecines/ Paranthropus?
Oldowan/ 2.6- 1.7 mya
"Pebble tools, chippers, scrapers , flakes and chisels.
Stone/ Percussion flaking
Tool culture used by Homo habilis
Oldowan/ 2.4- 1.5mya "Pebble tools, chippers, scrapers , flakes and chisels.
Stone/ Percussion flaking"
Tool culture used by Homo erectus
Acheulean/ 1.7 mya– 100000
“Stone +Percussion flaking
Flaked around all edges
Hand axes/ teardrop shapes"
Tool culture used by Homo neanderthalensis
Mousterian/ 200000 – 400000
"Stone, wood, bone-> ‘hafting’
Specific tools- piercing, gouging, scrapes
Tool culture used by early cromagnon Homo sapiens
43000 – 26000
Stone, wood & bone/ punch flaking
Tool culture used by later cro magnon Homo sapiens
22000 – 19000
Characterised by pressure flaking stones to produce artful willow leaf and laurel leaf points.
Used Stone, wood & bone/pressure flaking
Tool culture used by latest cromagnon Homo sapiens
18000 – 12000
Dominance of bone and antler tools over flint and Stone.
Used wood & bone/Hafting, punching & pressure flaking
Australopithecines/ Paranthropus lifestyle, food, hunter gatherers?
Lifestyle: slept in trees at night, during day- terrestrial, had home bases
Food- herbivores- hard, brittle. Ate seeds/ nuts. Ate grasses/ fruits/ tubers
Homo habilis lifestyle, food, hunter gatherers?
Lifestyle: interdependent, lived together in small groups
Food- omnivores: mainly plants, eating meant occasionally. Protein + lipids = brain development
Hunting/ gathering: both hunters/ scavengers for meat. Some bones show cuts made by stone tools and teeth showing how they ate meat -> food sharing
Homo erectus lifestyle, food, hunter gatherers?
Lifestyle: independent from environment-> used it to their advantage: built shelters and used fire
Food: omnivores/ meat- fish and deers. Veg- nuts and fruits (70%). Fire- cooked-> safe to eat.
Hunter/ gathering: skilful hunters, employing many capturing techniques eg, using fire to herd elephants and gathering tools from 33km away to capture prey.
Homo neanderthalensis lifestyle, food, hunter gatherers?
Lifestyle: caves, harsh conditions-> able to adapt and respond to environment. Clothes-> animal hides
Food- omnivores- 80% meat p- mammoths, rhinos, deers and horses. Preserved and STORED meat.
Hunting/ gathering; strong built and able to run long distances to catch prey, they even herded prey into areas where they could ambush them. - organised hunting.
Homo sapiens lifestyle, food, hunter gatherers?, social systems, communications beliefs and tools.
Lifestyle: scattered -> small populations, nomadic-> villages, better shelters
Food: meat based (archaic). Domesticated plants/ animals ( farming + agriculture) ~ 12000 years ago
Hunting/ gathering: able to catch prey using tracking methods and cages to trap them temporarily. Hunted bisons, venisons, reindeers, rabbits. Plants, seeds, Nuts. Also herded animals
Australopithecines/ Paranthropus social systems, communications, beliefs and tools?
Social systems- males stayed close to home and collected food. Females dispersed after puberty and cared for the young. They were no neighbouring groups
Communication- no speech, vocal cords are similar to chimps making only rudimentary sounds
Homo habillus social systems, communications, beliefs and tools?
Social system: liked to share things and look after each other, increased interdependence and group close knit and able to function as a social and economic unit. Men hunted, women and females gathered.
Communication: hands (visual signals), voice (simple)- pressure for communication increase, speech producing area bigger
Homo erecus social systems, communications, beliefs and tools?
Social system: women- gatherers due to demand for child caring. Care of young was becoming increasingly important. Also a greater emphasis on mutual cooperation and complex society developed.
Communication: gene for speech + language may have developed. Pressure for speech increased and spoken language may have arisen
Tools: Archeulian tool culture
Homo neanderthalenisis social systems, communications, beliefs and tools?
Social systems: cared for disabled, shared resources developed social systems for sharing food and other resources, traded with Homo sapiens and older children learned from adults
Communication: relatively advanced language skills. Larynx similar to H. Sapiens
Belief: strong indication they buried their dead suggesting they believed in life after death. Ceremonial burial seems to be practiced. Art and music development.
Tools: Moustierian tool culture
Homo sapiens social systems, communications, beliefs and tools?
Social system- innovations in clothing, complex social system, very few members involved in food production and most occupied in other pursuits,
Communication: symbolic language-> written
Beliefs- artistic, innovative. Religion. Art, music. Jewellery, body modifications, rituals and ceremonies.
Tools: aurignacian, solutrean, magdalenian, upper Palaeolithic tools