Y12 Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Y12 Endocrine System Deck (146):
1

What are the two kinds of glands in the body?

Exocrine and endocrine

2

What are endocrine glands?

Glands that secrete hormones isn’t extracellular fluid that surrounds the cells that make up the gland. The secretion usually passes into the capillaries to be transported by the blood. Endocrine glands are ductless.

3

What are exocrine glands?

Glands that secrete hormones into a duct that carries the secretion to the body surface of to one of the body cavities.

4

3 examples of exocrine glands?

Sweat glands
Salivary glands
Glands of the alimentary canal

5

What are the 9 major endocrine glands?

Pineal
Hypothalamus
Pituitary
Thyroid
Parathyroid
Thymus
Adrenal
Pancreas
Gonads

6

What are the endocrine hormones of the pituitary gland?

Follicle stimulating hormone
Luteinising hormone
Growth hormone
Thyroid stimulating hormone
Adrenocorticotropic hormones?
Prolactin
Antidiuretic hormone
Oxytocin

7

Which hormones are released by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland?

Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone

8

What hormone does the thyroid release?

Thyroxine which targets most body cells to increase metabolic rate and thence oxygen consumption and heat production

9

What hormone do the parathyroid release?

Parathyroid hormone which targets the bones and kidneys to increase rate of osteoclast activity, increasing levels of calcium in blood and control phosphate levels

10

What does FSH target?

The gonads where it stimulates growth of follicles and the production of spermatogonia

11

What does Lutenising hormone target?

-Ovaries in females where it is involved in ovulation and maintainance of corpus luteum.

-leydig cells in the testes of males where it stimulates secretion of testosterone

12

What does growth hormone target?

All cells, stimulating growth and protein synthesis

13

What does thyroid stimulating hormone target?

Thyroid stimulating production of hormones of thyroid gland

14

What does the adrenocorticotropic hormone target?

The adrenal cortex where it stimulates secretion of hormones from the adrenal cortex

15

What does prolactin hormone target?

The mammary glands where it stimulates production of milk

16

What does antidiuretic hormone target?

The kidneys ( specifically the distal proximal tubule and collecting duct of nephrons) where it causes reabsorption of water

17

What does oxytocin target?

The uterus where it allows contractions during childbirth and
The mammary glands which allow the release of milk

18

Where is thymosins released and what is its effect?

It is released by the thymus and targets t lymphocytes to stimulate development and maturation of T lymphocytes

19

Where is aldosterone released and what is its effect?

Released by the adrenal cortex to target the kidney where it increases reabsorbtion of sodium ions and excretion of potassium ions

20

What hormones are released by the adrenal cortex?

Aldosterone and cortisol

21

Where is cortisol released and what is its effect?

The adrenal cortex to target most cells where it promotes normal metabolism; helps the body deal with stress and promotes repair of damaged tissues

22

What hormones are produced by the adrenal medulla?

Adrenaline and noradrenaline

23

Where is adrenaline and noradrenaline preleased and what are their effects?

Produced by the adrenal medulla and targets most tissues where it prepares the body for fight or flight response ; reinforcing the effects of the sympathetic nervous system

24

Where is insulin released and what is its effect?

The pancreas to target most cells where it stimulates uptake of glucose; lowers blood glucose level

25

Where is glucagon released and what does it target?

Released by the pancreas and targets the liver and fat storage tissues to stimulate breakdown of Glycogen and fat; increase blood glucose levels

26

Where is Androgens (testosterone) released and what does it target?

In the testes where it targets many tissues to stimulate sperm production, growth of skeleton and muscles; male sexual characteristics

27

Where is ostrogen released and what does it target?

Released by the ovaries, targeting many tissues to stimulate development of female characteristics and regulate menstrual cycle

28

Where is progesterone released and what does it target?

Released via the ovaries to target
..the uterus where it regulates menstrual cycle and pregnancy
..the mammary glands where it prepares the mammary glands for milk secretion

29

Where is the hormone calcitonin produced and target once released?

Produced by the thyroid to target bones kidneys and intestines where it is involved in calcium regulation

30

How do proteins and amine hormones send chemical messages?

Proteins and amines are water soluble so they can’t enter, instead Hormone attaches to protein specific receptor in the membrane of the target cell. The combo of hormone with the receptor causes a secondary messenger substance to diffuse through the cell and activate Particular enzyme.

31

How do steroid hormones send chemical messages?

Steroid hormones are lipid soluable so they enter the target cell and combine to a receptor protein inside the cell. The receptor may be mitochondria, on other organelles of in the nucleus. The hormone receptor complex activates the genes controlling formation of particular proteins

32

What type/s of hormones can enter the cell?

Lipid hormones

33

What type/s of hormones can enter the cell?

Amines and proteins

34

Why can steroid hormones enter the cell?

Cell membrane is made of a phospholipid bylayer. Steroid hormones are lipid soluable so they enter the target cell and combine to a receptor protein inside the cell.

35

Why cant amines and protein hormones enter the cell?

Proteins and amines are water soluble so they can’t enter, instead Hormone attaches to protein specific receptor in the membrane of the target cell.

36

What are the 2 lobes of the pituitary gland, how are they different?

Anterior lobe - releases and produces hormones. hormone secretions are controlled by regulating factors. Hormones are secreted into EF surrounding the cells of hypothalamus and carried by blood to Anterior lobe.

Posterior lobe- doesn’t produce hormones but releases them. Joined to hypothalamus by the nerve fibres that come from nerve cell bodies in hypothalamus and pass through the infundibulum to the posterior lobe.

37

Relationship between hypothalamus and pituitary gland? (Posterior lobe)

Posterior lobe-
+ not a true gland as doesn’t produce hormones. hormones are produced by neurosecretory neurons
+produced in the soma, travel down axon and are stored in the axon terminals in the posterior lobe.
+ nerve impulse triggers the release of hormones from axon terminals in posterior lobe and hormones are releases into bloodstream
(Antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin)

38

Relationship between hypothalamus and pituitary gland? (Anterior lobe)

+Hypothalamus produces releasing and inhibiting factors in neurosecretory neurons.
+factor is secreted into hypophyseal portal system and bloodstream carries factors directly into the anterior lobe
+ factors reach target endocrine cells (with corresponding receptors) and initiate a response:
Releasing factor would increase production/ release of hormone. Inhibiting factor would decrease production/ release of hormone.
(Eg, growth hormone inhibiting and releasing factor)
+ hormones released travel through extracellular fluid and into the bloodstream, travelling around it until it reaches its target cells.

39

What is the infundibulum?

Infundibulum is the sack like structure that joins the pituitary gland to the hypothalamus

40

Why is regulation of calcium essential?

Essential for nerve impulse contraction and bone strength. It is controlled by calcitonin, vitamin D and parathormone

41

What happens if blood calcium levels are low?

Stimulus: low blood calcium levels
Receptor: chemoreceptors in parathyroid gland
Modulator: parathyroid gland which releases parathormone
Effector:bones, kidneys, intestines
Response:
bones- osteoclast break down bone for calcium
kidneys- reabsorption of calcium
Intestines- absorption of calcium increase
Feedback: increased calcium in bloodstream (negative)

42

What happens if blood calcium levels are too high?

Stimulus: high blood calcium levels
Receptor: chemoreceptors in parathyroid gland
Modulator: thyroid which releases calcitonin
Effector:bones, kidneys, intestines
Response:
bones- osteoblasts build up bone for calcium
kidneys- decreased reabsorption of calcium
Intestines- decreased absorption of calcium increase
Feedback: decreased calcium in bloodstream ( negative)

43

What happens if thyroxine levels in blood are too high?

Stimulus: high levels of thyroxine in blood
Receptor: chemoreceptors in hypothalamus
Modulator: hypothalamus produces thyroid stimulating hormone inhibiting factor which stimulates the anterior lobe of PG to decrease TSH production and release.
Effector: thyroid gland
Response:thyroid produceses less thyroxine
Feedback, decreased levelsof thyroxine in bloodstream ( negative)

44

What happens if thyroxine levels in blood are too low

Stimulus: low levels of thyroxine in blood
Receptor: chemoreceptors in hypothalamus
Modulator: hypothalamus produces thyroid stimulating hormone inhibiting factor which stimulates the anterior lobe of PG to decrease TSH production and release.
Effector: thyroid gland
Response:thyroid produceses less thyroxine
Feedback, decreased levelsof thyroxine in bloodstream

45

What happens if there is high metabolism/ increased body temperature

Stimulus: increased metabolism/ body temperature

Receptor: thermoreceptors in the skin and hypothalamus as well as chemoreceptors in hypothalamus detect thyroxine levels

Modulator: hypothalamus releases thyroid stimulating hormone inhibiting factor which decreases TSH production in Anterior lobe of pituitary gland affecting the thyroid gland to produce less thyroxine

Effector: somatic cells

Response: decreased metabolism causes decreased protein synthesis and cell respiration

Feedback: reduced metabolism and reduced body temperature (negative)

46

What happens if there is low metabolism/ decreased body temperature

Stimulus: decreased metabolism/ body temperature

Receptor: thermoreceptors in the skin and hypothalamus as well as chemoreceptors in hypothalamus detect thyroxine levels

Modulator: hypothalamus releases thyroid stimulating hormone releasing factor which increases TSH production in Anterior lobe of pituitary gland affecting the thyroid gland to produce more thyroxine

Effector: somatic cells

Response: increased metabolism causes increased protein synthesis and cell respiration

Feedback: increased metabolism and increased body temperature (negative)

47

What is hyperthyroidism?

Overproduction of thyroxine

48

What is hypothyroidism?

Under production of thyroxine

49

Example of hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism?

Hyper- Graves’ disease: most common type

Hypo- hashimotos: deficiency caused by attack on the thyroid gland by patients immune system

50

Causes and effects of hyperthyroidism?

Cause: caused by an immune system reaction and there seems to be genetic predisposition for the condition

Effect: enlargement of the thyroid, because cells are overstimulated: rapid heartbeat, weight loss, increased appetite, fatigue, sweating and anxiety. In Graves’ disease protruding eyeball

51

Treatment of hyperthyroidism?

- drugs that blocks thyroid glands use of iodine
- surgery to remove some of or all of gland
- drink containing radioactive iodine molecules which are taken up by thyroid cells which kills them

52

Cause and effect of hypothyroidism?

Cause: problems which thyroid gland or pituitary gland or hypothalamus, lack or iodine in diet, surgery removing gland

Effect: slow heart rate, unexplained weight gain, fatigue or feeling lack of energy, intolerance for cold, swelling of face and goitre

53

Treatment of hypothyroidism?

- inclusion of extra iodine in diet
- thyroxine tablets
- no cure and hormone tablets must be taken for rest of life

54

What happens if there is an autoimmune attack on the thyroid causing over production of thyroxine.

Stimulus: high levels of thyroxine in blood
Receptor: chemoreceptors in hypothalamus
Modulator: hypothalamus produces TSHIF cause my decreased production and release of TSH in pituitary gland
Effector: autoimmune response leads to increase in size of thyroid
Response: thyroid continues to produce thyroxine despite no TSH available
Feedback: thyroxine remains high in blood ( positive)

55

What happens if there is a lack of iodine in diet due to an autoimmune response destroys that thyroid cells or surgery?

Stimulus: low levels of thyroxine
Receptor: chemoreceptors in hypothalamus detect
Modulator: hypothalamus releases TSHRF to pituitary gland causing increase TSH
Effector: thyroid gland is for whatever reason not able to respond
Response: no thyroxine produced
Feedback: low levels of thyroxine (positive)

56

Define thermoregulation?

The regulation of body temperature, the balance of heat gain and heat loss in order to maintain a constant internal body temperature independent of environmental temperature

57

What may the body do if temperature is too high?

-Vasodilation: radiation and convection
-Sweating: evaporation allows increased heat loss
- long term they can be an decrease in metabolic rate= heat loss
- behavioural response

58

What may the body do if temperature is too low?

- vasoconstriction decreases blood flow to skin
- adrenal medulla stimulated to secret adrenaline and noradrenaline
- shivering increases friction and cell respiration
- increased thyroxine production/ metabolism
- behavioural response

59

How is low body temperature regulated through behavioural response?

S: Low temperature
R: thermoreceptor in skin and hypothalamus
M: heat production centre of thermoregulatory center of hypothalamus
E: cerebral cortex
R: conscious changes
F: increased body temp

60

How is low body temperature regulated through shivering?

S: Low temperature
R: thermoreceptor in skin and hypothalamus
M: heat production centre of thermoregulatory center of hypothalamus sends nerve impulse to cerebral cortex
E: primary motor area in frontal lobe
R: rhythmic contracting and relaxing causing increased cell respiration and friction
F: increased body temp

61

How is low body temperature regulated through vasoconstriction?

S: Low temperature
R: thermoreceptor in skin and hypothalamus
M: heat production centre of thermoregulatory center of hypothalamus sends nerve impulse to medulla which sends message to...
E: skin blood vessels
R: prevents blood going to skin= less heat lost
F: increased body temp

62

How is low body temperature regulated through increasing metabolism?

S: Low temperature
R: thermoreceptor in skin and hypothalamus
M: heat production centre of thermoregulatory center of hypothalamus
E: somatic cells
R: more thyroxine production increased respiration
F: increased body temp

63

How is low body temperature regulated through secreting adrenaline and noradrenaline ?

S: Low temperature
R: thermoreceptor in skin and hypothalamus
M: heat production centre of thermoregulatory center of hypothalamus sends nerve impulse to medulla olongata via Autonomic nervous system sympathetic route.
E: adrenal medulla
R: release noradrenaline to increase cell respiration and heat production
F: increased body temp

64

How is high body temperature regulated through behaviouralresponses?

S: high temperature
R: heat thermoreceptor in skin and hypothalamus
M: heat production centre of thermoregulatory center of hypothalamus
E: cerebral cortex
R: conscious changes
F: decreased body temp

65

How is high body temperature regulated through sweating ?

S: high temperature
R: thermoreceptor in skin and hypothalamus
M: heat production centre of thermoregulatory centre of hypothalamus sends nerve impulse via Autonomic nervous system
E: sweat glands
R: produce and release sweat which then evaporates
F: decreased body temp

66

How is high body temperature regulated through vasodilation ?

S: high temperature
R: thermoreceptor in skin and hypothalamus
M: heat production centre of thermoregulatory centre of hypothalamus sends nerve impulse to medulla which sends Autonomic impulse to vessels
E: smooth muscles in arterialise going to skin
R: blood vessels vasodilation increasing blood flow to skin allowing radiation and convection
F: decreased body temp

67

How is high body temperature regulated through decreasing metabolism ?

S: high temperature
R: thermoreceptor in skin and hypothalamus
M: heat production centre of thermoregulatory center of hypothalamus
E: somatic cells
R: decreased metabolism= less heat production
F: decreased body temp

68

What is heat transfer?

Balancing the loss and gain of heat through transferring it

69

What are the 4 types of heat transfer?

Conduction
Convection
Radiation
Evaporation

70

What is conduction?

-When heat energy moves FROM A WARMER OBJECT TO A COOLER OBJECT when they are in DIRECT PHYSICAL CONTACT

- if you touch a cold object passes from your body to the object and reverse happens when you touch something hotter than ur body

71

What is convection?

- An object will HEAT OR COOL AIR as it passes over the object
- the CURRENTS OV MOVING AIR REMOVE HEAT ENERGY from the object

72

What is radiation?

- heat energy moves FROM A WARMER OBJECT ACROSS A SPACE
- no contact necessary
- if your body has higher temp than the environment you will radiate heat into environment which cools the body and visevera

73

What is evaporation?

- LIQUID water is CONVERTED to WATER VAPOR
- REQUIRES ENERGY (in the form of heat) which is taken from body-> body cools
- as we sweat the evaporation of sweat from the skin cools the body

74

How is heat produced?

Carbohydrates, proteins and lipids we eat contain energy and in the process of cellular respiration food is oxidized in cells and energy released. Whilst some energy is used for cellular and body activity, most is released in form of heat

75

What is metabolic rate?

Rate at which energy is released by the breakdown of food.
Exercise, stress and body temperature all affect this

76

What are the types of thermoreceptor?

Peripheral and centeral

77

Where are peripheral and central thermoreceptors found?

Central- hypothalamus
Peripheral- skin and some mucous membrane

78

What are the types of peripheral thermoreceptors?

Cold and heat receptors

79

What body temperature is leather?

Above 45°

80

What is heat stroke?

When body temperature continues to rise and regulatory Mechanisms cease and body cannot lose heat by radiation or evaporation( often due to humidity and high body temp)
Cured by quickly cooling body in cold water

81

What is heat exhaustion?

Loss of water reduces volume of blood plasma lowering blood pressure and output causing person to maybe collapse.
Often occurs as a result of extreme sweating and vasodilation

82

What temp is optimum of cellular respiration?

37°

83

True or false
Heat gain must be equal to heat loss

True

84

Difference between validity and reliability?

Validity: how well experiment relates to the aim of the experiment.
Eg. Appropriate equipment for measurements, eliminates uncontrollable factors


Reliability: how close repeated measurements are to each other.
Eg. Fixed control variables so all test carried out same, choice of equipment

85

What disease does high blood glucose suggest?

High blood sugar= can lead to diabetes

86

What is diabetes caused by?

Caused by not enough insulin to manage glucose levels or; when insulin is not effective enough because your body is ‘insensitive’ to insulin

87

What does glucagon do?

Increase glucose levels

88

Where does insulin come from?

Secreted by beta cells in islets of langerhan in pancreas gland

89

Where does glucagon come from?

Alpha cells In islets of langerhan in the pancreas

90

Blood glucose regulation feedback loop for high blood glucose

S= Increased blood glucose levels

R= pancreas has islets of langerhan beta cells have chemoreceptors on them

M= beta cells in pancreas secrete insulin

E= all cells (protein S) , liver (glucogenesis) adipose tissue ( lypogenesis)

R= protein synthesis , glycogenesis, translocation, lypogenesis

F= decreased blood glucose

91

Blood glucose regulation feedback loop for low blood glucose

S= low blood glucose levels

R= pancreas has islets of langerhan alpha cells have chemoreceptors on them

M= alpha cells in pancreas secrete glucagon

E= liver, adipose tissue, cells

R= gluconeogenesis, lypolysis, glycogenlysis

F= increased blood glucose

(Negative feedback loop)

92

Define lypogenesis?

Metabolic formation of fat
-Happens to adipose tissue

(Decreases BG levels)

93

Define gluconeogenesis?

Making glucose from protein
-Happens to all cells

(Decreases BG levels)

94

Define lipolysis ?

Breakdown of fats and other lipids by hydrolysis to release fatty acids which converts into glucose
- adipose tissue
(Increases BG levels)

95

Define translocation?

Movement of glucose from blood stream into cells
Happens at all cells
(Decreases BG levels)

96

Protein synthesis role in glucose regulation?

Stimulated by the release of insulin and acts to reduce blood glucose levels
-Happens at all cells
(Decreases BG levels)

97

Define Glycogenolysis?

Process of converting glycogen back to glucose

(Increases BG levels)

98

Define glycogenesis?

Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage.
(Decreases BG levels)

99

What responses occur to reduce blood glucose?

-translocation
-lipogenesis
- protein synthesis
- glycogenesis

100

What responses occur to increase blood glucose levels?

- lypolysis
- glycogenolysis
- gluconeogenesis

101

Benefits of stress?

- Warning system
- improve productivity and concentration
- fights tiredness and fatigue

102

Long term effects of stress?

- anxiety
- depression
- sleep problems
- digestive problems
- heart problems ( like hypotension)

103

Stress feedback loop?

Stimulus- Stressful situation (fight or flight response) so low glucose levels

Receptors- sensory receptors in AMYGDALA

Modulator- hypothalamus initiates release of adrenaline and cortisol

Effector- liver, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and all cells

Response- flight or flight responses Eg. Increased heart rate and cellular respiration. Metabolic Processes of glyogenolysis, lipolysis and gluconeogenesis also increase

Feedback- overcome stressor, high glucose levels in blood so increased energy production




104

What does the AMYGDALA do and where is it located?

It is a section of nervous tissue in the brain responsible for emotions, survival instincts and memory

105

What does modulator do during stress (flight or flight response) in terms of ADRENALINE

Nerve impulses via Autonomic division
-> adrenal medulla
-> adrenaline

106

What does modulator do during stress (flight or flight response) in terms of CORTISOL?

hypothalamus
-> Adrenocorticotropic hormone releasing factor
-> Anterior pituitary gland
-> ACTH released
-> reaches Adrenal cortex
-> which then releases cortisol

107

Define diabetes mellitus?

Abnormally high blood glucose levels (hypoglycaemia). There are two types, a diabetic doesn’t produce enough insulin or their cells have an abnormal resistance to the effects of insulin

108

Cause of type 1 diabetes?

Type one is insulin dependent diabetes
- occurs because of a fault in the patients immune system causes the destruction of beta cells in the islets of langerhans of the pancreas. Beta cells are therefore not producing insulin, usually begins at childbirth

109

Effects of type 1 diabetes?

-Beta cells cease producing insulin, glucose therefore cannot enter.
- can lead to kidney failure and heart attacks
- can cause blurred vision, increased thirst, increased blood pressure, frequent urination

110

Treatment of type 1 diabetes?

-Disease can be managed by giving a person insulin
-Can’t be digested into alimentary canal so treatment is regular injections of insulin or; use of programmable pump that provides continuous supply of insulin under skin
- no actual cure

111

Cause of type 2 diabetes?

Iifestyle disease caused by obesity or being overweight, risk increases when person has a diet high in fat, sugar, salt and low fibre, high blood pressure and smoking.

112

Effects of type 2 diabetes

- body is able to produce insulin but cells do not respond.
- undiagnosed can lead to heart disease, stroke, kidney disease etc.
-excessive hunger, thirst, fatigue

113

Treatment of type 2 diabetes!

No cure but is managed by:
- careful diet, regular physical activity, maintaining healthy weight and only sometimes medications that stimulate secretion of more insulin from pancreas or stimulate receptors to be more sensitive

114

Type 1 diabetes feedback loop?

Stimulus: high glucose in blood

Receptor: chemoreceptors in beta cells are damages

Modulator: beta cells do not produce insulin

Effector: liver, all cells, muscles and adipose tissue

Response: little activity (glycogenesis, lipolysis, p.synthesis, translocation)

Feedback: glucose remains high

(Positive fb loop)




115

Type 2 diabetes feedback loop?

Stimulus: high blood glucose

Receptor: chemoreceptors on beta cells

Modulator: beta cells produces insulin

Effector:insulin receptors on liver, muscle, adipose tissue (effectors) damaged

Response: slow response (glycogenesis, lipolysis, p.synthesis, translocation)

Feedback: glucose level in blood still high

116

Where on the fb loop does type 1 diabetes treatment occur?

Receptor: becomes monitoring machine

Modulator: injection or pump

117

Where on the fb loop does type2 diabetes treatment occur?

Stimulus: keeping a healthy diet, lifestyle

Effector: medication-> increases insulin sensitivity ( thence increase rate of response)

118

Gas concentration feedback loop stimulus for HIGH CARBON DIOXIDE

stimulus- high co2 level (byproduct of aerobic respiration) in bloodstream
So increased hydrogen ion levels
So decreased PH levels ( more acidic)

119

Gas concentration feedback loop receptor for HIGH CARBON DIOXIDE

Chemoreceptors in medulla oblongata and aortic and carotid bodies in arteries

120

Gas concentration feedback loop modulator for HIGH CARBON DIOXIDE

Medulla oblongata respiratory centre sends nerve impulses

( via intercostal nerve and phrenic nerve)

121

Gas concentration feedback loop effector for HIGH CARBON DIOXIDE

Intercostal muscles ( from intercostal nerve)
Diaphragm (from phrenic nerve)

122

Gas concentration feedback loop response for HIGH CARBON DIOXIDE

Increased breathing rate and depth

123

Gas concentration feedback loop feedback for HIGH CARBON DIOXIDE

Decreased co2 levels in blood
So decreased H+ ion levels
So increased ph ( neutral)

124

Order of menstural hormone release?

FOLP
FSH-> Oestrogen-> lutenising hormone-> progesterone

125

Gas concentration feedback loop stimulus for very low oxygen levels?

Decreased o2 ( must be VERY low to stimulate a response)

126

Gas concentration feedback loop receptor for very low oxygen levels?

Chemoreceptors in MO and aortic and carotid bodies

127

Gas concentration feedback loop modulator for very low oxygen levels?

Medulla oblongata ‘respiratory center’

Via intercostal nerve and phrenic nerve

128

Gas concentration feedback loop effector for very low oxygen levels?

Intercostal muscles
Diaphragm

129

Gas concentration feedback loop response for very low oxygen levels?

Increased breathing rate and depth

130

Gas concentration feedback loop feedback for very low oxygen levels?

Increases o2 levels

131

Hyperventilation feedback loop?

Stimulus- no stimulus. Low co2 ( too low to stimulate breathing) Normal o2 levels (not low enough to stimulate breathing)

Receptor- chemoreceptors and aortic and carotid bodies don’t detect changes

Modulator- mo not instructed to initiate a response

Effector- diaphragm and intercostal muscles are relaxed

Response- no breathing

Feedback- increased co2, H+, and decreased PH. O2 is used up. Lower gas concentration after enough time to stimulate a response

132

Cause of asthma?

Caused when an airway swells and becomes inflamed and narrow

133

Symptoms of asthma?

Shortness of breath
Wheezing
coughing

134

Cause of emphysema?

Walls of airsacks in lungs (alveoli) weaken and rupture overtime reducing SA of lungs and amount of oxygen you get

135

Symptoms of emphysema

Shortness of breath
Wheezing
Chronic cough

136

Asthma feedback loop?

Stim: high co2, H+, low ph

Receptor: chemoreceptors in AC bodies and mo

Modulator:mo

Effector: diaphragm and intercostal muscles

Response: bronchioles are narrowed ( inflammation and constriction due to a trigger so breathing rate and depth don’t increase much

Feedback- co2 levels remain high, o2 decreases

137

Emphysema feedback loop?

Stim: high co2, H+, low ph

Receptor: chemoreceptors in AC bodies and mo

Modulator:mo

Effector: diaphragm and intercostal muscles

Response: alveoli number has decreased so decreased SA and insufficient gas exchange

Feedback- co2 levels remain high, o2 decreases

Treatment would be at stimulus

138

What happens when dehydrated?

Low water in bloodstream
-> low blood volume
-> low blood pressure
-> higher salt conc
-> higher osmotic pressure

139

Thirst reflex feedbackloop?

Stimulus- low h20 concentration and high osmotic pressure

Receptor- osmoreceptors in hypothalamus thirst center

Modulator- hypothalamus thirst center

Effector- cerebral cortex- frontal lobe =feel thirsty

Response- behavioural (drink water) and water is absorbed in digestive system

Feedback- increased h20 concentration and decreased osmosis pressure

140

Antidiuretic hormone feedback loop?

Stimulus- low h20 concentration and high osmotic pressure

Receptor- osmoreceptors in hypothalamus

Modulator- hypothalamus-> nerve impulse-> post.pit.gland-> ADH released

Effector- kidney ( distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct)

Response- DCT+CD become more permeable -> ADH opens water channels and water is reabsorbed

Feedback- increased h20 concentration and decreased osmosis pressure

141

High water concentration feedback loop?

Stimulus- high h20 concentration and low osmotic pressure

Receptor- osmoreceptors in hypothalamus don’t detect

Modulator- hypothalamus-> nerve impulse-> post.pit.gland-> no ADH released

Effector- kidney ( distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct)

Response- DCT+CD become less permeable -> ADH closes water channels and less water is reabsorbed

Feedback- decreased h20 concentration and increased osmosis pressure

142

What do alcohol and caffeine do to ADH?

Alcohol- prevents ADH release from pit

Caffeine- blocks ADH receptors

143

Aldosterone feedback loop for high salt concentration?

Stimulus-low h20 conc=increased osmotic pressure,high salt conc and low blood pressure

Receptors- chemoreceptors+ osmoreceptors in hypothalamus and baroreceptors in AC bodies; kidneys

Modulator- hypothalamus, ACTHRF, ant.pit.gland, ACTH, adrenal cortex, aldosterone

Effectors- kidneys- loop of henele DCT

Response- NA K pumps become active. NA is reabsorbed, K is secreted. This increases osmotic pressure as water moves from filtrate to blood stream to balance salt concentration

Feedback- high H20= decreased Osmotic pressure, decreased salt concentration, increased blood pressure

144

Aldosterone feedback loop for low salt concentration?

Stimulus-high h20 conc=decreased osmotic pressure,low salt conc and high blood pressure

Receptors- chemoreceptors+ osmoreceptors in hypothalamus and baroreceptors in AC bodies; kidneys

Modulator- hypothalamus, ACTHIF, ant.pit.gland, ACTH not produced, adrenal cortex not targeted, reduced aldosterone

Effectors- kidneys- loop of henele DCT

Response- NA K pumps become deactivated. NA stays in filtrate, K stays in blood. = maintained osmotic pressure, water doesn’t move from filtrate.

Feedback- low H20= increased Osmotic pressure, increased salt concentration, decreased blood pressure

145

High calcium feedback loop?

S- high blood calcium
R- chemoreceptors on thyroid
M- thyroid releases calcitonin
E- kidneys, intestines, bones
R-osteoblasts build up bone, less reabsorption of calcium in kidney,decreased absorption of calcium in intestines
F- decreased blood calcium

146

What is calcium needed for?

Nerve impulses, muscle contraction and bone strength