Flashcards in Semester 1 Exam Deck (99):
How to write a hypothesis?
By using An if then statement. It should include both an independent variable (the factor you change in an experiment) and a dependent variable (the factor you observe or measure in an experiment) and it must be testable
What is an independent variable?
The factor YOU will change in an experiment
What is a dependent variable?
The factor you will OBSERVE OR MEASURE in an experiment
What are controlled variables?
Controlled variables are quantities that a scientist wants to remain constant, and she must observe them as carefully as the dependent variables.
What is the difference between a control and experimental test?
The control is the thing you are comparing to and experimental is the things you are testing
What is the purpose of a control group?
It helps rule out alternate explanations of the experimental results.
Role of placebo- use in investigation?
Something which tests is a the results from an investigation are psychological or not
1 mm equals how many microns?
How to calculate mm form microns?
Mm= um/ 1000
Formula for Total magnification?
total mag= mag of ocular lens x mag of objective lens
What is Field of View ?
Field of view (diameter of space which can be seen) = when magnification increases FOV decreases
What is the formula for Field of view at LOW POWER MAG?
Use a minigrid to read value
Formula for field of view at MEDIUM/HIGH power?
high power fov (um) = low power fov(um) x mag at low power/ mag at high power
Formula for size of OBJECT (on slide)? In microscopy
Fov (at which the the object is being viewed) divided by number of time the object could fit across field of view
How to calculate scale of biological drawing? In microscopy
Scale (mag of drawing)= size of DRAWING (um) / size of OBJECT (um)
3 things required for correct biological drawing?
Drawing materials (sharp pencil), positioning (centre of page), size (large enough to easily represent all details), labels (use ruler, neat)
What is a trend?
The general direction which something is developing or changing
What is a pattern?
Repeated pattern or sequence
What is a heart attack?
A heart attack happens when there is a sudden complete blockage of an artery that supplies blood to an area of your heart.
Causes: age, Angina, high blood cholesterol and diabetes
What are symptoms of a heart attack?
Discomfort, tightness, dizziness
Treatment of heart attack?
Blood thinner medications, beta blockers, coronary bypass surgery
What is asthma?
condition in which a person's airways become inflamed, narrow and swell and produce extra mucus, which makes it difficult to breathe.
What causes asthma?
Airborne substances eg. pollen, dust
Symptoms of asthma?
Shortness of breath
Chest tightness or pain
Wheezing & coughing
Treatment of asthma?
Bronchodilator, inhalers, oxygen therapy
What is diarrhoea?
a condition in which faeces are discharged from the bowels frequently and in a liquid form.
What are causes of diarrhoea?
-Irritation of the small or large intestine which increases peristalsis
- bacterial or viral infection
What are symptoms of diarrhoea?
- dehydration through water loss
Hat is the treatment of diarrhoea?
Antibiotics, Treatment to replace fluids, drinking water
What is the cause of angina?
Pain in the chest caused by reduced blood flow to the heart
Symptoms of angina?
indigestion, heartburn, weakness
Effects of angina?
Lifestyle changes- stop smoking, control weight, nitrate medication to reduce attack intensity, calcium channel blockers
What is kidney disease?
Loss of kidney function
2 types of kidney failure?
Chronic- categorised by gradual loss of kidney function.
Acute kidney failure- sudden/ serious drop in kidney function
Causes of chronic kidney disease?
Diabetes, high blood pressure
Causes of acute kidney failure?
Sudden or serious drop in blood flow to kidneys
Symptoms of chronic kidney disease?
Can have no symptoms at first but as it continues: fatigue, high blood pressure, loss of appetite
Symptoms of acute kidney disease?
-Little to no urine while urinating
-swelling in legs and feet
Treatment of chronic kidney disease?
Diabetes- control your blood sugar level
High blood pressure- medication (ACE inhibitor or Angiotensin)
Acute kidney failure treatment?
- treatment to balance amount of fluid
-medication to control blood potassium
- dialysis to remove toxins from blood
What is the organisation of the body? Cells to...?
Cells = tissues = organs = organisms
What are the 4 types of tissues?
What is the function of epithelial tissues?
A covering or lining tissue. Helps with secretion, selective absorption and protection
Structural features of epithelial tissues?
Cells that make up the tissue are very closely joined together. Almost no intracellular spaces.
Location of epithelial tissues?
Lungs, lining to blood vessels,stomach and intestines
Functions of nervous tissue?
Allows us to experience stimuli and make a response, communication in the body
Structural features of tissues?
Made up of specialised nerve cells called neurons.
Contain 2 categories of cells- neurons and neuroglia (supportive cells)
Locations of nervous tissue?
Peripheral nerves, brain and spinal cord
Functions of muscular tissue?
Cardiac muscle helps pump blood,
-allows contraction and supports movement
Structural features of muscular tissue?
Long and thin,
3 different types: skeletal, smooth and cardiac
Locations of muscular tissue?
Skeletal- attached to bones (tendons, ligaments, bones)
Cardiac- walls of heart only
Smooth- walls of internal structures like blood vessels, stomach and intestine
Function of connective tissue?
Provides support for the body and help hold all the body parts together
Provide a transport system ( blood)
Support for skeletal framework and support soft tissue organs ( bones)
Structural features of connective tissue?
Not close together, cells are separated by non cellular material called matrix.
Loose, dense and elastic tissue
Abundant and widely distributed
Location of connective tissue?
Surround blood vessels, tendons, ligaments, cartilage and circulatory system
Oesophagus, skeleton, around liver and spleen
What is the cell membrane?
Outer layer of the cell that separates It from neighbouring cells and external environment.
What is the nuclear membrane?
A membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
How is a membrane structured?
A phosphate lipid bilayer
What are nuclear pores?
Pores to allow transport of molecules across nuclear envelope. Transport of RNA and ribosomal proteins
What is a nucleus?
The centre of the cell. It contains an organisms genetic material, mostly DNA
What is chromatin?
The double helix in the cell nucleus is arranged by special proteins. The formed DNA complex is called chromatin
What is the nucleolus?
Comprised mostly of RNA, involved in making proteins and ribosomes
What is mitochondria?
Releases energy for the cell through the process of cellular respiration
What does the Golgi apparatus do?
Modify proteins and package them in vesicles for secretion from the cell
What does the centriole do?
Involved in Reproduction of the cell, (send spindle like fibres to attach to chromatin?)
What do the microtubules do?
Thick protein tubes important in cell division, connect through chromosomes to help them split
What is a eukaryote?
A eukaryote is any organism whose cells have a nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes.
What is a prokaryote?
Prokaryotes are unicellular organisms that lack organelles or other internal membrane-bound structures .
What are the basic requirements of cells?
Oxygen, water, nutrients
Waste products of all cells?
Carbon dioxide, urea and proteins
What is the structure of the cell membrane?
A phospholipid bilayer. Hydrophilic head, hydrophobic tails (fluid mosaic model), protein channels along membrane, carbohydrates to act as cell receptors
What is the function of the cell membrane?
To seperate cells, keep cytoplasm and organelles contained, protein channels in the membrane allow water, ions and other small molecules to pass through. Prevent unwanted substances from entering.
What are the types of passive transport?
Diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
What is passive transport?
No energy required, molecules moving along the concentration gradient
What is active transport?
Uses energy, molecules move against the concentration gradient
What is diffusion?
The spreading of something widely
What is osmosis?
a process by which molecules of a solvent tend to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrated one.
What is facilitated diffusion?
is the process of spontaneous passive transport of molecules or ions across a cell's membrane via carrier proteins
What are the types of active transport?
Active carrier mediated transport and vesicular transport ( endocytosis and exocytosis)
What is active carrier mediated transport?
Protein binds a molecule of the substance to be transported on one side of the membrane, changes shape then releases it on the other side. Proteins are specific to the molecules they carry across
What are the 2 types of vesicular transport?
Endocytosis and exocytosis
What is endocytosis?
Taking materials INTO the cell by the membrane folding over the substance.
What is exocytosis?
The removal of materials from the cell by membrane folding around the substance.
What is the concentration gradient?
is the process of particles, which are sometimes called solutes, moving through a solution or gas from an area with a higher number of particles to an area with a lower number of particles
What is metabolism?
All chemical reactions occurring in a living organism
What is a anabolic reaction?
Building metabolic process: simple molecules built up into more complete substances
They require energy. To create bonds between molecules eg, protein synthesis,DNA replication
What is a catabolic reaction?
Destructive metabolic process: complex molecules are broken down into simpler ones
- releases energy eg. Cellular respiration, I chemical digestion
What is an enzyme?
A protein which catalysis chemical reaction without being used up
What is the purpose of cellular respiration?
To provides cells with the energy they need to function
What is the formula for cellular respiration?
Glucose + oxygen = carbon dioxide+ water+ energy
What is anaerobic reaction?
Respiration where there is no oxygen, occurs on cytoplasm. in cells produces 2 ATP, lactic acid. 'Glycolysis'.
Respiration where there is oxygen, in cells 38 ATP, water and CO2 produced. Occurs in mitochondria
What is ATP?
Adenosine triphosphate. Energy
How is ATP formed?
glycolysis, in which glucose is broken up into two pyruvic acids, which creates two units of ATP per molecule.
If oxygen is not available (oxygen debt) turned into lactic acid and sent to liver to get turned back into pyruvic acid.
If oxygen is available, pyruvic acid goes into mitochondria and goes through Krebs cycle- 2ATP
Then goes through electron transport system-> 34 potential ATP
What is ATP used for?
ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism.
How is energy produced in glycolysis
ADP + Pi + energy → ATP
What are the uses of energy from ATP?
- building complex molecules
- cell division and growth
- movement of cell organelles
- movement of whole cell
-maintaining cell organisation
What is the role of nutrients in the body?
The body needs nutrients to function. Nutrients are essential for growth, repair and maintaining he body.
What is a nutrient
Any substance in our food that is used for grown, repair or maintaining the body, that is, any substance required for metabolism