Flashcards in FINAL EXAM Deck (174):
Organisation of the body?
Cells, tissues, organs, systems
What is a tissue
Groups of cells which share a specific function
What are the 4 main types of tissues?
muscle, epithelial, connective and nervous
2 functions of epithelial tissues?
- protects underlying tissue
- helps with secretion, selective absorption
List 2 structural features of epithelial tissue?
-Cells closet joined together, almost no intracellular spaces
- cells vary in shape
Location of epithelial tissue?
Lungs, lining blood vessels, kidneys, intestines
List 2 Functions of nervous tissue?
-Allows us to experience stimuli and make response
2 structural features of nervous tissue?
-Contains 2 catergories of cells neurons and neuroglia
Location of nervous tissue
Peripheral nerves, brain and spinal cord
Function of muscular tissue?
-Cardiac muscle helps pump blood
- allow contraction and support movement
- movement of food or body secretions
Structural features of muscular tissue?
- long and thin
3 types: skeletal, involuntary, cardiac
Location of muscular tissues?
Skeletal- attached to bones eg. Tendons
Cardiac- walls of heart only
Smooth/ involuntary- walls of hollow internal structures eg. Blood vessels, stomach
Function of connective tissue?
-Provides support for the body and holds all body parts together.
- provides transport system within our body ( blood)
- provide support for skeletal framework
Structural features of connective tissue?
- not close together, cells separated by non cellular matrix
-loose dense and elastic tissue
- abundant and widely distributed
Location of connective tissue?
- surround blood vessels
- tendons, ligaments
- oesophagus and other organs
3 different structural differences between animal and plant cells?
-Cell wall in plant cell
-Animals have small temporary vacuoles ( If any)
- plants do not have centrioles
- plants have chloroplast
3 functional differences between animal and plant cells?
- Animals cells store energy in the form of the complex carbohydrate glycogen. Plant cells store energy as starch.
- Animal cells do not have plastids. Plant cells contain plastids such as chloroplasts, which are needed for photosynthesis.
Look at organelles quiz
Look at organelles quiz
What is a prokaryotic cell?
A prokaryote is a unicellular organism that lacks a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane-bound organelle
What is a eukaryotic cell?
A eukaryote is any organism whose cells have a cell nucleus and other organelles enclosed within membranes.
3 differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells ?
- eukaryotic cells have a nucleus
- prokaryotic cells have have no membrane bound organelles
- eukaryotic animals are often multicellular
What is a system?
Groups of organs working together to for a specific function
What is cellular transport?
Movement of materials into and out of the cell across the cell membrane
What are the functions of the cell membrane?
-To provide a physical barrier,
-regulate the passage of materials,
-sensitive ( detects changed in the environment and responds to maintain homeostasis )
-protects and supports cell
Overall Purpose of cell transport
- To achieve homeostasis
- take require products and remove wastes from the cell
What are the 3 membrane models?
Dash model, phospholipid model and fluid mosaic model
What does the dash membrane model show?
- that the membrane has gaps
- substances can move through if small enough but large substances can't
- membrane is selectively permeable
What does the phospholipid membrane model show?
- phosphate heads which are hydrophilic
- a lipid tails which are hydrophobic
+Meaning water soluble substance substances cannot move through through membrane ( glucose, ions)
+lipid soluable substances can move through ( steroids, alcohols)
What does the fluid mosaic membrane model show?
-Fluid as components moving around, Mosaic because there are many components
- Cholesterol: structural support/ strength
- Glycoprotein/ glycolipids: receptor which detects changes in environment
- Chanel proteins: water and water soluable materials into and out of cell
-carrier proteins: changes shape and moves substances through cell membrane
- phospholipid bilayer: lipid soluble substances only
What is passive transport?
Cell transport which uses no energy and molecules move along the concentration gradient
What is active transport?
Cell transport that uses energy and molecules move against the concentration gradient
Types of passive transport?
Diffusion, osmosis and facilitated diffusion
Types of active transport?
Carrier mediated active transport, endocytosis and exocytosis (vascular transport)
What is diffusion?
The spreading of particles so that they are evenly distributed over space available
What is osmosis?
A type of diffusion. Diffusion of a solvent through a differentially permeable membrane.
* watch vids*
What is facilitated diffusion?
Passive process in which substances move with the concentration gradient. The molecule transported is attached to a binding site on the carrier, the carrier changes shape and the substance is released on the other side.
What is carrier mediated active transport?
Similar to facilitated diffusion, but does not depend on concentration gradient. Cell can take in or pass out substances regardless of their concentrations inside and out of the cell
What is endocytosis?
Taking liquids or solids into the cell via vascular transport. Cell membrane folds around droplet of liquid or particle until completely enclosed
What is exocytosis?
When the contents of a vesicles inside the cell are passed outside the cell. A vesicles formed inside the cell migrates to the cell membrane, fuses with it and contents are then pushed out into extra cellular fluid
2 types of endocytosis?
Pinocytosis and phagocytosis
What is pinocytosis?
Taking liquids into the cell
What is phagocytosis?
When vesicles contain solid particles
What is a concentration gradient
Difference in concentration of a solution, often between inside and outside of a cell
Factors affecting cell transport
- surface area to volume ratio
- surface area
- thickness of membrane/ cell layers
- amount of moisture
- no. Of blood vesicles
- concentration gradient
How does surface area to volume ratio affect cell transport?
As a cell gets bigger it's surface area to volume ratio decreases = diffusion becomes less efficient. Diffusion is easier in smaller cells
Eg. Single celled organisms (amoeba)
How does surface are affect cell transport?
The bigger the surface area the larger/ greater cell transport will be.
Eg. Alveoli in lungs = faster exchange of O2/ CO2
How does thickness of membrane/ cell layers influence cell transport?
The thinner the membrane the shorter the distance and the faster the cell transport will happen.
Eg. Blood capillaries are one cell thick
How does the amount of moisture affect cell transport?
Too much moisture, all cells surrounded by a cell of moisture = substances can only be transported if they are dissolved
Eg. Alveoli surrounded by moisture thin layers = o2 dissolves into water for transport into blood
How does no. Of blood vesicles affect cell transport?
If cells have a rich supply of blood vesicles ( highly vascular) blood is always transporting materials to and from the area. Concentration is maintained.
How does concentration gradient affect cell transport?
Molecules that move along concentration gradient (o2, co2) vs molecules that move against ( sodium, potassium)
Greater the gradient the faster the rate of movement
What is metabolism?
The total of all chemical processes that take place in the body
What is catabolic reaction?
Destructive metabolic process: complete substances are broken down to simpler ones, releasing energy
Eg. Cellular respiration, chemical digestion
What is an anabolic reaction?
Building metabolic process where simple molecules are built into more complex substances, it require energy to create bonds
Eg. Protein synthesis, DNA replication
What is an enzyme?
Proteins which catalyse specific chemical reactions without themselves being altered
review lock and key model
What do enzymes do?
Assist metabolic processes ensuring that reactions occur at a sufficient rate. Without enzymes many of the body's functions would occur too slow for us to survive
Feature of enzymes?
- catalyse reactions
- lower energy of reaction required
- not used up
- reaction specific
- denatured by heating
What is the activation energy?
Energy required to start a chemical reaction, usually takes a lot of energy to start reaction, enzymes act by lowering the amount of energy required therefore less energy required = the faster the reaction will occur
Factors affecting enzyme activity ?
- concentration of enzymes and substrate ( higher the concentration = increased rate of reaction)
- ph ( each enzyme has its own optimum ph level)
- presence of cofactors (inorganic molecules) and coenzymes ( organic molecules). They change the shape of an enzyme active site to make it complementary to substrate?
Purpose of cellular respiration
Organic molecules are broken down in cells to release energy for cellular activity
Define cellular respiration
Breaking gown of glucose to release energy
Formula for cellular respiration?
Glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide+ water+ energy
Formula for forming ATP?
ADP+ Pi = ATP
What is anaerobic respiration?
Respiration that does not require oxygen
What is aerobic respiration?
Respiration requiring oxygen
Where does anaerobic respiration occur?
Glycolysis- in the cytoplasm
Where does aerobic respiration occur?
In the mitochondria
What is produced in glycolysis?
2 ATP and 2 pyruvates which become lactic acid if no oxygen Available
What is produced during aerobic respiration?
Kerbs cycle-'2 ATP molecules
Electron transport system- products broken to release enough energy to make 34 ATP
How is ATP formed?
ADP + Pi = ATP
What is energy ATP used for in cells?
-Building complex molecules
- cell division and growth
- movement of cell organelles
- movement of whole cell
- maintaining cell organisation
- active transport
- transmission of nerve impulses
What other form of energy is in glucose other than ATP?
What are the 6 types of nutrients?
Role of water as a nutrient in the body?
- fluid in which substances are dissolved
- chemical reactions in cell occur in water and water molecules take part in some reactions
Role of carbohydrates as nutrient in the body?
- main source of energy for cells
- complex carbon hydrates are broken down to simpler sugars, particularly glucose, which can be broken down in cellular respiration to release energy
Role of lipids as nutrients in the body?
- important energy source
- broken down into fatty acids and glycerol. glycerol can enter the glycolysis pathway and be broken down to release energy in a similar way to glucose
Role of proteins as nutrients in the body?
- are broken down to amino acids.
- with regards to metabolism important proteins are made into enzymes which control metabolism by controlling chemical reactions.
- proteins can also be used as a source of energy but only if the supply of carbohydrates and lipids in inadequate
Role of minerals as nutrients in the body?
- important for metabolism because they may be a part of enzymes, function as coenzymes, that are involved in metabolism.
Two types of metabolism?
Anabolism and catabolism
What is the optimal temperature for enzymes?
-37°c (they denature ~40-50)
What is denaturing?
When the shape of the protein is altered, preventing it from performing its function It has been denatured, it can occur from overheating
What is the pharynx?
- above larynx,
- throat. Air passes from nose through it
What is the nosal cavity?
-Nose contains projections which increase internal SA
- filters, warms and moistens air + Contains smell receptors
What is the larynx?
-Organ of voice, contains vocal cords
- air passes through larynx going to and from lungs.
What is the trachea?
- windpipe that carries air to and from lungs
- lined with mucus membrane and cells with cilia
What are bronchi?
- 2 primary bronci branch from trachea and divide into secondary and tertiary bronchi
What are bronchioles?
Very fine tubes of which branch from bronchi. Finer ones end in alveoli
What are intercostal muscles?
- muscles between ribs
- move ribcage upwards and outwards to increase chest cavity volume
What is the diaphragm?
A muscle that separates the chest from the abdomen. It contracts and flattens downwards increasing chest cavity volume
What do lungs do?
- occupy all chest cavity, exp space taken by heart.
- covered by pleural membrane, that lines inside of chest
What direction does air always move when breathing?
Air always moves from high pressure area to low pressure. Pressure is dependent on volume: when volume of a sealed space increases, the internal Pressure decreases vise Vera
What happens during inhalation?
- diaphragm contracts and flattens
- external intercostal muscles contract to move ribcage upwards and outwards= increased thoracic cavity volume
- pressure inside lungs decreases and partial vaccum is created = pressure gradient has formed and air is sucked in from outside until the pressure inside/ outside equalises
What happens during exhalation?
- diaphragm relaxes and returns to dome shape
- external intercostal muscles relax to move ribcage down and in
- if active-> internal intercostal muscles contracts to bring ribcage down and in= decreased thoracic cavity volume
- pressure inside lungs increases and partial vacuum is created
- pressure gradient has formed and air moves out to the outside. Until pressure inside/ outside equalises
Why are lungs well suited to their gas exchange function?
- alveoli give huge SA
- each alveolus well supplied with blood
- thin membranes on alveolus
- lungs position deep inside body to prevent excessive evaporation of fluid covering respiratory surfaces
- lung volume can be changed by movement of respiratory muscles
What part of the brain helps regulate breathing rate?
Explain gas exchange at the alveoli?
- high CO2 in blood but low CO2 in alveoli so carbon dioxide diffuses from blood into alveoli
- High O2 in alveoli but low O2 in blood so oxygen diffuses from alveoli into blood, attaches to haemoglobin making oxyhemoglobin
- blood from pulmonary artery is deoxygenated ( low in o2 and high in co2 ) goes through capillaries in Lungs and exits once oxygenated via pulmonary vein
What is the effect of exersise on breathing trade and depth?
The heart rate increases during exercise. The rate and depth of breathing increases - this makes sure that more oxygen is absorbed into the blood, and more carbon dioxide is removed from it.
Features of cardiac muscle that make it suitable as a pump?
- continuous network of branched striated cells. Cells are interconnected.
- doesn't tire, if it does tissue can't be replaced
Structure of the heart?
RIGHT (actually on left)
- superior vena cava
- right atrium
-inferior vena cava
- tricuspid valves
- right ventricle
- semilunar valves ( leading to pulmonary artery)
- left atrium
- bicuspid valves
- semilunar valves ( leading to aorta)
- apex ( chin)
- septum ( middle piece)
What does the pericardium do?
- hold heart in place
- protection from pathogens
-fluid reduces friction
- prevents over expansion
- shock absorber
What happens In The atrial systole of the cardiac cycle?
SA nose sends nerve impulse down bothe left and right atria. Atria contract, forcing blood through the valves into the ventricles which are in diastole.
Role of atrioventricular nodes?
What happens in ventricular systole of the cardiac cycle?
Nerve impulse reaches the atrioventricular node. Impulse sent down t the apex. Penjiki fibres are stimulated causing ventricles to contract in an upward motion, tri/ bi cuspid valves close and blood pumped out through the pulmonary artery/ aorta
What happens during diasystole of the cardiac cycle?
Bothe the aorta and ventricle are relaxed: filling with blood (0.4sec)
What is cardiac output?
the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute
What is stroke volume?
The amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle of the heart in one contraction
What is venous return?
rate of blood flow back to the heart
What is heart rate?
number of times a person's heart beats per minute
What are the types of blood vessels?
Structure of arteries?
-Tunica externa, media, interna and lumin
- goes FROM the heart
- connective tissue= strong
- tissue+ elastic fibres so it can resort to original shape
Structure of veins
- Tunica externa, media, interna and lumin
- goes TO the heart
- thin walls with little muscle, less elastic than arteries
- often have valves
- smooth muscle
Structure of capillaries?
- very thin and narrow
- one cell thick
- loosely packed -> permeable
Blood pressure in veins?
- low blood pressure, valves prevents blood from flowing backwards
What is systemic circulation?
Systemic circulation is the part of the cardiovascular system which carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body, and returns deoxygenated blood back to the heart
What is pulmonic circulation?
Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated (oxygen-rich) blood back to the heart
Where does the aorta take blood?
Where does the pulmonary artery take blood
Carries deoxygenated blood to Lungs fro heart
Where does the pulmonary vein carry blood?
Oxygenated blood To the heart from the lungs
What is blood made up of?
Red blood cells - 41-46%
Structure and function of erythrocytes?
- ~120 day lifespan
- red, small, biconcave
- pick up oxygen from lungs and deliver it to tissues elsewhere. Pick up carbon dioxide and unload it in the lungs
Structure and function of leucocytes?
- live from a min to a year
- 2 tyres granular: bumpy grainy and agranular: smooth appearance
- fight pathogens and clear up any dead body cells in body
Structure and function of thrombocytes?
- 7 day lifespan
- small cell fragments
- no nucleus, can't divide or repair
- prevent bleeding and help clot blood
Structure and function of plasma?
-clear yellow liquid
- makes up 43-63% of blood
- plasma helps to o transport molecules
Transport of oxygen in blood?
-3% dissolved in plasma, 97% in erythrocytes
- happens in areas of high oxygen eg.lungs
- oxygen easily binds to haemoglobin = oxyhemoglobin which is red
In areas of low oxygen eg. Cells
- oxygen detaches from haemoglobin and enters cell via diffusion, becomes deoxyhaemoglobin
Transport of carbon dioxide in blood?
-CO2 diffuses in look
-8% in plasma, 22% attach to globin =carbamohaemoglobin
- 70% carried into plasma as bicarbonate ions
- when it reaches lungs CO2 diffuses into alveoli for removal
Explain blood clotting
- Tear, chem message activates thrombocytes. Become sticky and form platelet plug
- blotting factors activate and attach, produce fibrin which acts as a net reinforcing developing clot
- red and white blood cells add strength, clot contracts bringing edges of blood vessels together. Clot remains till vessel repairs
What is the lymphatic system?
The lymphatic system is a drainage system for excess fluid found between cells that has been forced out of the capillaries due to blood pressure
Differences between lymphatic system and circulatory system?
The lymphatic system works with the cardiovascular system to return body fluids to the blood. The lymph, the clear liquid found in the lymphatic system, is moved along in the lymph vessels by the squeezing action of smooth muscles and skeletal muscles
How does the lymphatic system protect the body?
- nodes protect against infection by removing cell wastes and harmful microbes
What do lymph noses do.
They are swellings along lymph vessels which protect against infection by removing cell wastes and harmful microbes
Structure of the digestive system?
How does mechanical digestion occur in the mouth?
Teeth and tongue move food around and break it down making it easier to swallow. Saliva lubricates your mouth and helps break down dissolved food.
What are the different types of teeth
Incisors- 4, chisel shaped
Canines- on each side of incisors
Parts of a tooth?
Crown- enamel, dentine
Neck- pulp cavity, gum
Root- cementum and root canal
How does chemical digestion occur in the mouth?
Saliva contains an enzyme (amylase) that begins the breakdown of carbohydrates.
Lingual lipase produced by glands in mouth also begins to chemically break down lipids
REVIEW DIGESTIVE STSYEM DIAGRAM
REVIEW DIGESTIVE STSYEM DIAGRAM
What muscles are located in oesophagus?
Circular- muscle fibres arranged in a circular pattern
Longitudinal- muscle fibres arranged along the length of the canal
What is peristalsis?
Wave of muscle contraction
What aids food down the oesophagus?
Movement of food is lubricated by secretion of mucus from the inner lining
What does the bolts have to pass through to get to the stomatch?
What is the role of the sphincter?
Allows food down the stomach and prevents food from leaving stomach
What are the functions of the stomach?
- mixes partially digested food
- mechanical digestion
- chemical digestion
- produce gastric juices stimulated by hormones
- connect oesophagus to duodenum ( start of small intestine)
How does the stomach mechanically digest food? What does it form?
- waves of muscle con traction. 3 layers help mix and digest food, with gastric juices forming chyme
What are the parts of the mucosa of the stomach.?
-Mucous neck cells which secretes mucus
-parietal cells which secrete hormones and hydrochloric acid.
- chief cells which secrete pepsinogen and gastric lipase
What are 2 roles of the small intestine in digestion?
Finishing digestion and absorbing nutrients from food
REVIEW DIAGRAM OF INTESTINES
REVIEW DIAGRAM OF INTESTINES
Basic unit of proteins
Amino acids which come from eggs, chicken, steak
Basic unit of carbohydrates?
Sugar, glucose which come from sugary drinks, bread, cereals
Basic units of lipids?
Glycerol and fatty acids which come from chees, butter, palm oil
Role of carbohydrates?
To provide energy for physical activity, brain function and operation of organs
Role of proteins?
Keep ph levels neutral and provide structure and movement, help transport nutrients in and out of cell
Role of lipids?
To provide energy, produce hormones, insulate and protect ur body, help break down and absorb food and production of cell laced membrane
What is mechanical digestion?
When food is broken down physically from large to small pieces
What is chemical digestion?
Breaking down of food it's the aid of enzymes into smaller units
Mechanical digestion in small intestine?
Bile emulsifies fat so enzymes can work more effectively
Chemical digestion in the stomach?
Chief cells secrete pepsinogen (which breaks down peptide bonds in protein) and gastric lipase ( breaks down lipids)
Chemical digestion in the small intestine?
Intestinal amylase- breaks complex carbohydrates into simple sugars
intestinal peptidase- polypeptides into amino acids
Intestinal lipase- lipids into fat acids and glycerol
Pancreatic amylase-carbohydrates into simple sugars
Pancreatic protease-proteins into amino acids
Ribonuclease-digest and break down RNA and DNA
Pancreatic lipase-break down lipids to glycerol and fatty acids
What secretes from the gallbladder and liver that aids in digestion?
Gallbladder- bile stored
Liver- bile secreted
What structures increase SA within small intestine?
- Folded surface
What is absorbed in the small intestines by the lacteals v the blood capillaries?
Lacteals- fatty acids and glycerol recombine in the villi to form fats and along with fat soluble vitamins enter the lacteals
Blood- simple sugars, amino acids, water and water soluble vitamins
What happens in the large intestine?
-Water and electrolyte absorption
- bacteria ferments remaining undigested food
- bacteria synthesise into small amounts of vitamin k and biotin and are absorbed
- faeces stored
- gas produced
Composition of faeces?
Water, undigested food, bile pigments (which give colour) , remains of cell broken away from the digestive system
What is the function of the skeleton?
- produce red blood cells
- storage (calcium, phosphate, potassium, sodium etc)
Composition of bone?
- spongy bone: trabeculae, red bone marrow ( red blood cell production occurs in the spongy bone), pourus bone in epiphysis
- compact bone: composed of osteons, give strength and structure
- 25% collagen fibres which hive flexibility to bone
Composition of cartilage?
Chondrin (matrix composed of collagen )stores chondroblasts (cartilage cells which regenerate the matrix).
Chondroblasts mature to chondrocytes
Types of osteocytes and roles?
Osteogenic cellsA stem cells
Osteoblasts- synthesise and secrete collagen and initiate construction of lamellae
Osteocytes- mature bone cells
Osteoclasts- digest bone
REVIEW COMPACT BONE and CANCELLOUS BONE DIAGRAMS!!! + parts of long bone
Functions of muscles?
- facilitate movement in partnership with skeletal muscles
- support structure
- give body shape and movement
- generate heat
REVIEW MUSCLE DIAGRAM
REVIEW MUSCLE DIAGRAM
REVIEW SACROMERE DIAGRAM and sliding filament theory
REVIEW SACROMERE DIAGRAMand sliding filament theory
What are antagonistic muscles?
Muscle pairs. Antagonistic pairs of muscles create movement when one (the prime mover) contracts and the other (the antagonist) relaxes
Eg. Biceps and triceps
Types of joints?
What are the types of joints?
- Fibrous (fixed) which allow no movement eg. Joints in skull
- cartilaginous which allow for slight movement and are held together by cartilage eg.joints between ribs and sternum
- synovial joints which are freely movable, movement can be limited by ligaments, muscles tendons and adjoining bones eg. Ball in socket,hinge and pivot