EX1 Transplant Immunology - Bailey Flashcards Preview

SP14 Microbiology > EX1 Transplant Immunology - Bailey > Flashcards

Flashcards in EX1 Transplant Immunology - Bailey Deck (36):
1

cells or tissues that is being transplanted

graft

2

transplanting a cell or tissue to the same anatomical site

orthotopic

3

transplanting a cell or tissue to a different anatomical site

heterotopic

4

transfer of circulating cells from one individual to another

transfusion

5

graft transplant from one individual to the same individual

autologous graft

6

graft transplanted between two genetically identical (or very similar) individuals

syngeneic graft

7

graft between two genetically different individuals

allogenic graft

8

Peter Medawar proved that graft rejection was dependent upon the activation of the ________ immune response (more specifically ___ cells)

adaptive
T cells

9

Rejection of the graft is due to _____ mismatch

MHC

10

The body is able to eliminate T cells that recognize self antigens AND self _____; this is why a graft that has self antigens and DIFFERENT _____ is rejected

MHC
non-self MHC = allogenic MHC

11

True or False
Allogenic MHC and a self peptide can mimic the structure of a foreign peptide and self MHC

True; this can lead to graft rejection

12

When T cells recognize allogenic MHC (or allogenic MHC + self peptide) this is a (direct/indirect) alloantigen recognition

direct

13

Alloantigen recognition can also be indirect via the uptake of allogenic MHC by an ______ and presenting it as a _____ _____, and the T cell recognizes it as (self/non-self)

APC
self peptide
self

14

This graft rejection occurs in couple of days after; it is due to pre-existing alloreactive antibodies which lead to the complement cascade and inflammation, etc.

Hyperacute rejection

15

This graft rejection occurs over a weeks time due to the activation of CD8 and B cells which produce antibodies that activate complement, etc, etc.

Acute rejection

16

This graft rejection results from macrophage activation in parenchyma thats leads to cytokine production and growth factors that intimal thickening

chronic rejection

17

In order to prevent graft rejection _________ medication is taken to reduce T cell activity

immunosuppression

18

Immunosuppressive drugs work by inhibiting ______ production but can also reduce ______ and block _____ and ____

cytokine
IL-2
CD3 and B7

19

These type of transplants are used for the treatment of __________ diseases

Bone marrow transplant
hematological (cancer, immunodeficiencies, etc)

20

Bone marrow transplant recipients run the risk of developing _____ ____ _____ disease

graft versus host (graft = bone marrow, attacking the host = recipient)

21

The first real evidence that the immune system is involved with cancer is that ____ cells taken from a mouse with a tumor and transplanted into a mouse without the tumor is now (resistant/not-resistant) to that type of cancer

CD8
resistant

22

True or False
T cells cannot recognize cancers and antigens

False; T cells recognize antigens and there are several antigens associated with tumor cells such as mutated self, oncogenes, etc.

23

Some tumors down regulate ______ which will trigger the activation of ____ cells; thus stimulating apoptosis in the cancer/tumor

MHCI
NK cells

24

Activated NK cells produce _____ which stimulates the production of ______

IFN-γ
macrophages

25

If the tumor-associated macrophages do not receive ______, then they can _______ tumor formation

IFN-γ
enhance

26

IFN-γ leads to the formation of (M1/M2) macrophages

M1

27

IL-4, IL-13, and IL-10 lead to the activation of (M1/M2) macrophages

M2

28

True or False
M1 macrophages enhance tumor

False; M1 macrophages suppress tumors/kill tumor cells; M2 macrophages enhance tumors

29

The principal mechanism of tumor immunity is killing tumor cells by _____

CD8, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)

30

CD8 T cells are most effective against ______ ____ _____ tumors

DNA virus-induced

31

T cells can induce ______ in cancer cells; via perforin and granzymes

apoptosis

32

True or False
In some cases CTLs are phagocytosed into the tumor cell therefore activating other CTLs (cross priming)

True

33

The role of CD4 cells (is/is not) clear

is not clear; many help activate CD8, or produce Th1 cytokines

34

B cells are important for anti-tumor immunity via ____ _____ ______ _______

antibody mediated NK cell cytotoxicity; NK cells induce apoptosis, etc.)

35

People with _____ ______ _____ are at an increased risk of developing cancers

chronic inflammatory diseases

36

How can the immune system lead to cancer; _______ can lead to hyperplasia (increased cell proliferation) which can lead to _______, and ____ ____ can damage nucleic acids

cytokines
dysplasia (abnormal cell development)
free radicals