Final; Antivirals and Vaccines Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final; Antivirals and Vaccines Deck (28):
1

What do antivirals target

structural, functional, and genomic information to identify targets
must be active against the virus and not to the host

2

This is an antiviral of HIV blocking gp41, inhibiting membrane fusion

Enfucvirtide

3

These are antivirals of influenza that blocks ion channels preventing nucleocapsid release at the end of cell entry

Amantadine
Rimantadine

4

What is one things antivirals can target preventing genome replication

nucleoside analogs; chain terminators

5

This is an antiviral of herpes; most effective against HSV, speficifity depends on virus thymadine kinase (nucleoside inhibitors)

acyclovir

6

This is the first antiviral approved for clinic

acyclovir

7

This antiviral is effective against CMV, but is more toxic due to interference with cellular kinases

ganciclovir

8

This antiviral is like nucleoside inhibitors for herpes virus infections, improved for oral bioavailibity

valganciclovir

9

This antiviral for herpesvirus prevents viral polymerase and is administered via an IV and is toxic

foscarnet

10

What is unique about antivirals involving HIV an HBV

toxicity is an issue
resistance is often observed
usually need more than 1 type (co-administration)

11

This antiviral inhibits RNA viruses via many ways as well as impairing capping on mRNA

ribavirin

12

This form of ribavirin inhibits polymerases of RNA viruses

triphosphate

13

This form of ribavirin inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase lowering GTP in the cell

monophosphate

14

Maturation of viral progeny often requires what

cleavage of virus polypeptide

15

True or False
Immature progeny are infectious

False; they are not

16

This treatment for HIV blocks cleavage of gag-pol polypeptide blocking the activity of other protease inhibitors also blocking action of cellular proteases that act on viral protease inhibitors

ritonavir

17

What are some challenges involving bioavailabity with antivirals

absorption into the body
transport to site of virus
intake by cell
therapeutic window

18

What is a challenge involving specificity with antivirals

targets the virus activities exclusively or with great preference

19

What is a challenge involving toxicity with antivirals

low impact on patient

20

This is a natural antiviral, although the mechanism is not understood, it is more effective against RNA viruses

interferons

21

This type of vaccine involves administering all or part of a pathogenic agent to induce antibodies or cell-mediated immunity

active immunization

22

This type of vaccine involves administration of exogenously produced antibodies

passive immunization

23

What are the two forms of vaccines

live, attenuated
killed

24

This is a possible complication with live attenuated vaccine, and what disease is caused by it specifically with polio

reversion
vaccine-acquired paralytic poliomyelitis
only killed vaccines in US

25

What are the three important cell types in vaccination

B cells
CD8
CD4

26

What do vaccines utilizing B cells only target

pneumonococcal and HIB

27

What do vaccines utilizing B cell and T cell immunity including secretory IgA target

influenza, polio, oral typhoid

28

Which age groups/populations should be vaccinated

young children and the elderly
weak immune system; immunocompromised
may not respond to live attenuated
those with complications like smallpox and eczema