EX3; Oral Mucosa Sensations Flashcards Preview

May14 Oral Histology > EX3; Oral Mucosa Sensations > Flashcards

Flashcards in EX3; Oral Mucosa Sensations Deck (74):
1

What are the three parts of the dorsal tongue

root
body
terminal sulcu

2

Where are the root and the body of the tongue derived from

body = mucosa from branchial arch 1
root = mucosa from branchial arch 3

3

What kind of keratinization of the epithelium is located on the dorsal tongue

most keratinized except for in a few key locations

4

What kind of lamina propria does the dorsal tongue contain

flexible; other side is more rigid

5

True or False
The dorsal tongue does not contain a submucosa

True

6

The dorsal tongue contains numerous papillae, what different kinds

some papillae are taste buds
some papillae are innervated by somatosensory nerve endings

7

True or False
Sensation is only registered from the tongue

False; it is in the mucosa as well

8

What cranial nerves supply taste to the taste buds

facial - VII
glossopharyngeal - IX
vagus - X

9

This cranial nerve supplies the anterior mouth

trigemial - V

10

This cranial nerve supplies the posterior tongue and pharync

glossopharyngeal - IX

11

These fibers supply a touch sensation

A beta
A delta

12

These fibers supply a warming sensation

C fibers

13

These fibers supply a cooling sensation

A delta

14

These fibers supply a painful sensation

A delta
C fibers

15

This somatosensory receptor is associated with large axons (A beta) and terminates in the superficial lamina propria between the rete pegs

Meissner's corpuscles

16

What kind of forces are associated with Meissner's corpuscles

dynamic forces; rapidly adapting

17

This somatosensory receptor is associated with large axons (A beta) and terminus at the apices of the tete pegs

Merkel receptors

18

What kind of forces are associated with Merkel receptors

static forces; slowing adapting

19

This somatosensory receptor complexes of nerve endings and specialized epithelial cells

Merkel receptors

20

This somatosensory receptor complexes of nerve endings encapsulated by non-nueronal cells

Meissner's corpuscles

21

What kind of threshold do both Merkel and Meissner's receptors have

very low threshold; very sensitive

22

True or False
Merkel's receptors only respond during static forces

False; they also respond during dynamic, but also (and solely) during static, Meissner's does not respond during static

23

True or false
Merkel and Meissner's receptors code painful senstations

False; they do not because their dynamic range does not extend to the noxious (harmful) range

24

What is used to transmit painful sensations

nociceptors
free nerve endings
A delta and C fibers

25

What are the main functions of the taste system

detect chemicals in the food
distinguish between nutritive/non-nutritive
detect harmful substances

26

What are the 5 classes of taste receptors that detect the 5 classes of stimuli

sugars (sweet)
amino acids (umami)
salts (salty)
acids (sour)
varied alkaloid, purines, glycosides (bitter)

27

This is goblet shaped closed of 40-60 cells at right angles to the basal lamina extending to the surface containing microvili and a taste pore

taste bud

28

True or False
There are no nerve fibers at the base of taste buds

False; there are primary afferent fibers at the base and some bud cells synapse with these fibers

29

How may taste buds are distributed in the mouth

around 8,000

30

Where are the taste buds located

68% on the tongue
27% on pharynx/larynx
5% on soft palate

31

These papillae around on the dorsal anterior tongue and contain around 1600 taste buds

fungiform papillae

32

Where are the fungiform papillae derived from and what are the innervated by

branchial arch 1
innervation = chorda tympani (BA2)

33

Where are the fungiform papillae most numerous

at the tip of the tongue; they are located there to monitor food entering the mouth

34

What is the shape of the fungiform papillae

mushroom shaped

35

Where is the keratin layer interrupted regarding fungiform papillae

at the pore and between filliform papillae

36

The fungiform papillae are located amongst what

filiform papillae

37

Where are the taste buds located on the fungiform papillae

on the dorsal surface

38

How many taste buds do each fungiform papillae typically have

around 3

39

These are heavily keratinized spine shaped papillae which do not contain taste buds

filiform papillae

40

What are filiform papillae innervated by

somatosensory fibers

41

These are 2-9 parallel folds, dorsoventral orientation on the lateral aspect of the most posterior anterior tongue; strategic location to monitor food during chewing

foliate papillae

42

How many taste buds are located on the foliate papillae and what are they innervated by

around 1300 taste buds
innervated by glossopharyngeal (BA3)

43

Where are the taste buds of the foliate papillae and circumvallate papillae located

in the trenches; not on the surfaces

44

What are the foliate papillae and circumvallate papillae closely associated with

salivary glands
specifically Von Ebner glands

45

These are 8-10 papillae arranged in a "V" on the most posterior anterior tongue with a central connective tissue core surrounded by a trench used to monitor food just before swallowing

circumvallate papillae

46

How many taste buds are on the circumvallate papillae

around 2400; densely packed

47

Though the different taste papillae are distinctively histologically and innervated by different nerves, they are generally functionally redundant in their ability to do what

sense different tastes

48

The taste buds on the larynx (epiglottis) respond to deviations in this, indicated the signal to protect the airway

isotonicity; response to water

49

True or False
A single fungiform papillae can only detect one specific taste

False; they can usually detect more than one quality (~3 buds/papillae)

50

What is important to know about the functional redundancy of the taste system

it makes it resilient to the face of partial taste loss

51

When the chorda tympani is numbed, which side are the taste stimuli undetectable

on the ipsilateral side to the anesthesia

52

What occurred involving the taste when both of the chord tympani's were numbed

there was no obvious taste loss

53

True or False
The number of taste papillae varies greatly between individuals

True; women tend to have more then men

54

True or False
The number of taste papillae dramatically decreases with age

False; it may only decrease slightly but mainly due to lost of olfactory sensations

55

Fox accidentally discovered marked individual differences in the ability to taste what and the bimodal distribution of thresholds indicated this

bitter phenylthiocarbamide (PTC)
it is an inherited trait

56

In the last how many years was the functional characterization of receptors understood

in the last 15 years
2000-2009

57

This is a 30 member family of G-protein coupled bitter receptors of which each has a limited range for bitter compounds

tas2r

58

What is largely responsible for the sensitivity differences to bitterness (PTC) in tas2r receptors

amino acid substitutions

59

Vegetables containing this compound are significantly more bitter to people who are homozygous for PTC sensitive tas2r

glucosinolates

60

True or False
People with more sweet receptors prefer lesser sweet things

True;
people with less sweet receptors prefer more sweet things, this can contribute to caries production

61

True or False
both genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual taste sensitivity and preference

True

62

These cells of a taste bud are on the lateral aspect, in the epithelium at right angles to the basal lamina, contain microvili, and do not synapse

perigemmal cells

63

What is the presumed function of perigemmal cells

support or renewal

64

These cells are located at the base of the taste bud, in the epithelial basal cells, and their function is renewal

basal cells

65

These cells are at the center of the taste bud and have receptors that convey stimulus

elongated cells

66

This type of elongated cell stains for glial markers suggesting a supportive role; it also may respond to salts, and there are no synapses

Type 1 (dark)

67

This type of elongated cell expresses receptors for taste substances and responds to taste stimuli; there are two types

light cells

68

This type of light cell responds to sour taste and synapses with primary afferent nerves

Type III

69

This type of light cell responds to bitter, sweet, and amino acid tastes and does not synapse with primary afferent nerves

type II

70

Type II and type III use this to communicate with the primary afferent taste nerves; in regards to type II, it is the primary transmitter

ATP

71

K19 (keratin) is expressed during what, and this indicates what

expressed during development and reflects the rapid turnover of taste receptor cells

72

In which embryological week does the taste buds first appear

week 8

73

In which embryological week does the taste pores first appear

week 12

74

What has been indicated about taste preferences in infants

the basic taste system is hard wired at birth (facial expressions upon bitter/sweet) but the natural taste preferences are altered by experience (enfamil and nutramigen formulas)