EX2; Pulp Flashcards Preview

May14 Oral Histology > EX2; Pulp > Flashcards

Flashcards in EX2; Pulp Deck (75):
1

What is the embryonic origin of the dental pulp

ectoderm
neural crest ectomesenchyme
dental papilla

2

What are the constituents of the dental pulp

cells and cellular elements
blood and lymphatic vessels
extracellular matrix
*not calcified

3

What are the 5 main functions of pulp

inductive
formative
nutritive
protective
defensive/reparative

4

What are the two functions of the protective nature of pulp

sensory; high pressure
barrier; odontoblast junction

5

What are the two functions of the defensive/reparative nature of pulp

immune
formation of new dentin and pulp

6

What is the difference between a young pulp and an old pulp

the young pulp is much larger than the old pulp

7

True or False
Pulp is not normally calcified, but ectopic calcifications are common

True; these are pulp stones, typically most coronal

8

What becomes of calcifications in the pulp as it moves apically

the become diffuse

9

Where can you find diffuse calcifications

in healthy and even un-erupted teeth

10

True or False
Pulp stones cannot be visible radiographically

False; large dense ones can

11

What are the two main histologic organizations in the pulp

odontogenic zone
central (pulp) core

12

What makes up the odontogenic zone

odontoblast layer
cell free zone
cell rich zone

13

What makes up the central (pulp) core

fibroblasts
capillaries/arterioles/venules
nerves (perineural sheath)

14

What are the resident immune system cells found in the pulp

macrophage
lymphocytes
eosinophils
dendritic cells

15

What are the inflammatory immune system cells found in the pulp

plasma cells
mast cells
PMNs

16

These cells in the pulp detect bacterial antigens and are closely associated with the odontoblast layer

dendritic cells

17

These cells serve as a source for replacement of odontoblasts or fibroblasts

stem cells

18

What are the main components of the extracellular matrix of pulp

PGs and associates (GAGs)
glycoproteins
collagen I and III

19

This is involved with collagen fibrillogenesis and water retention of the ECM of pulp

PGs and other associates

20

This is involved in cell adhesion to the ECM

glycoproteins; fibronectin

21

This gives the ECM of pulp tensile strength

collagen I and III

22

True or False;
stem cells are only plentiful during development

False; they are also present in adults

23

What are the clinical implications of adult stem cells in teeth

potential source for repair or correction of genetic defects
tissue-specific stem cell populations well known in regenerating organ (blood, bone, skin)

24

What are the novel concepts of adult stem cells in pulp

extent of plasticity (able to become more/different)
ability to develop complex organized structures

25

What specific type of adult stem cells are derived from dental pulp (bone marrow, etc.)

multipotent

26

Dental pulp stem cells can be induced to form what

odontoblasts
adipocyte
glial-like cells in vitro

27

Dentin-like tissue from the dental pulp stem cells transplanted subcutaneously in immunocompromised mice what occurred

dentin-pulp complex

28

True or False
stem cell niches probably present in multiple location of mature pulp

True

29

These are the 2nd most numerous cell type in the pulp

odontoblast

30

What are the functions of odontoblasts

dentinogenesis
nutrients to dentin
immune

31

What are the different shapes of the odontoblasts coronally or apically

toward the root they become more cuboid

32

What becomes of the odontoblastic processes as it moves apically

they become thinner

33

What are the differences between the odontoblastic processes and cell bodies microscopically

the bodies contain organelles the processes contain more cytoskeletal (microtubules) elements with no nucleus or organelles

34

This type of junction between odontoblasts maintain position and polarity

desmosomes and adherens junctions

35

This type of junction between odontoblasts coordinated dentinogenesis (cell communication)

gap junctions

36

This type of junction between odontoblasts acts like a barrier, not allowing things to pass through

tight junctions

37

What was the experiment involving HRP testing looking to discover about the pulp

How strong the tight junctions of the odontoblasts were; they injected HRP into the pulp and noticed out it did not penetrate the dentin, it stopped at the odontoblast layer

38

What was showing involving cavity preparation and the strength of tight junctions of the odontoblasts

the cavity preparation showed to weaken those bonds, allowing HRP to penetrate the dentin

39

What specifically distinguished the pulp from the other tooth tissues

the presence of blood and lymphatic vessels

40

Blood flow in pulp is under what control

neural; sympathetic from superior cervical ganglion
sensory

41

What does the sympathetic nervous system control regarding the blood flow in the pulp

constricts the blood flow
alpha-adrenergic receptors

42

What is the importance of the lymphatic vessels in the pulp

healing; drain proteins accumulated during inflammation

43

Lymphatic vessels in pulp may have what in order to overcome challenge associated with encasement in hard tissue

complex anatomy

44

What type od nerve fibers does the pulp contain

A delta
A beta
C

45

These nerve fibers are sensory pain fibers

A delta

46

These nerve fires are sensory pain fibers and sympathetics

C

47

These nerve fibers are sensory pain fibers and light touch

A beta

48

What is the main sensation arising from activating nerve fibers innervating the pulp and surrounding dentin

pain

49

Innervation begins at which odontogenic phase

bell stage

50

Density of innervation increases until what

eruption, and probably decreases with aging

51

True or False
Both primary and secondary dentition is innervated

True

52

Nerves enter though where are termini where

enter through the apical foramen and terminate in the pulp-dentin border zone and dentin

53

The dye injection into pulp determined how far the nerves and odontoblast processes transported into dentin, how far was this

only about 1/3 of the way in

54

Where are the dentinal tubules most innervated

in the crown

55

This is a highly innervated region along the pulp-dentin border

Rashkow's plexus

56

Nerve fibers profusely innervate what

the pulp-dentin border

57

What accounts for the high sensitivity of the DEJ to exposure

hydrodynamic theory

58

The perturbed fluid in the dentin tubule causes what to occure

neural activity

59

What experiment was used to support the hydrodynamic theory

premolars destined for extraction were drilled and acid-etched to open the tubules and a tube was sealed into the cavity attached to a saline-filled syringe and manometer and tested positive and negative pressure

60

Was the register or pain any different with negative or positive pressure

positive was slightly lower, but still produced pain

61

These nerve fibers are hypothesized to be pulp nerve fibers important for hydrodynamic dentinal pain

A beta (but A delta also involved)

62

Why are A beta fibers the ones associated with dentinal pain

they have very low thresholds for pain

63

The odontoblast receptor theory is highly unlikely, but how could it affect dentinal sensitivty

crowding in the tubule
non-synpatic communication possible; adhesive contacts could cause odontoblasts to "pull on" nerve fiber

64

True or False
Pain can arise directly from stimuli in the pulp

True

65

These nerve fibers have receptors for inflammatory and thermal stimuli

C fibers

66

C fibers are members of this family which are transmembrane receptors for thermal and inflammatory pain in regions of the body

TRP receptor
TRPA1 receptor

67

Sensitivity changes with what

inflammation

68

These are present in dentinal and pulp sensory nerves

neuropeptides

69

Peptides are synthesized in cell body of what

trigeminal ganglion

70

What occurs at the central ending of neuropeptides

transmitter function

71

If peptides bind with receptors on brain neurons, what occurs

pain

72

What occurs at the peripheral endings of neuropeptides

local regulatory function

73

If peptides find with receptors on vasculature/local cells, what occurs

pre-inflammatory

74

What four things does sensory/pain nerve also do

vasodilation (oppose sympathetics)
plasma extravasation
angiogenesis
interactions with immune cells

75

How does sensory/pain nerves interact with immune cells

stimulation of cytokine production by macrophages
chemotactic effects on immune cell migration