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1

transmission genetics

"classical" How traits are transmitted from generation to generation

2

Molecular genetics

structure and function of genes and how their expression is regulated

3

genomics

analysis of entire genomics

4

population genetics

study of a heredity in a group of individuals
-study one or a few genes

5

quantitative genetics

study of heredity of polygenic and multifactorial traits
ex. IQ

6

Applied research

research that solves a problem in society ex. cancer research

7

basic research

answers a fundamental question of how something works
NEED this for applied research

8

Genetic material must

contain, in a stable form, the information about an organism's cell structure, functiondevelopment, and reproduction
-must be able to be expressed
-must replicate accurately
must be capable of change

9

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

10

RNA

ribonucleic acid

11

dsDNA

double stranded DNA

12

Watson and Crick designed a molecular strucure based on

X-ray diffraction from Franklin
Chargaff's rule
polymer of nucleotides
knowledge of chemistry

13

nucleoside

base + sugar

14

Chargaff's rule

1:1 ration of A:T and G:C

15

Franklin and Wilkins concluded

DNA is helical
distinct regularities
Periodicities
360o = 3.4 nm
between bases 0.34 nm
Therefore, 10 base pairs/turn

16

major and minor grooves

grooves formed by angle of glycosidic bond

17

DNA vs RNA

RNA: hydroxyl group at 2' carbon, uracil, genetic material for some viruses
DNA: H at 2' carbon, thymine, genetic material from all known prokaryotes and eukaryotes

18

RNA structure

almost never linear
secondary structure important for protein recognition

19

DNA in prokaryotes

circular, found in nucleoid

20

negative supercoiling

untwisting the DNA

21

positive supercoiling

twisting DNA more

22

topoisomerase

controls amount and type of supercoiling

23

topoisomerase I

nicks 1 side of backbone

24

topoisomerase II

cuts both strands

25

bacteria DNA packaging

with supercoiling

26

DNA location in eukaryotes

nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts

27

C value

amount of haploid DNA in base pairs

28

C value paradox

more DNA (C value) does not mean there is increased complexity of an organism

29

karyotype

complete set of chromosomes

30

chromatin

DNA + proteins