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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (49)
1

transmission genetics

"classical" How traits are transmitted from generation to generation

2

Molecular genetics

structure and function of genes and how their expression is regulated

3

genomics

analysis of entire genomics

4

population genetics

study of a heredity in a group of individuals
-study one or a few genes

5

quantitative genetics

study of heredity of polygenic and multifactorial traits
ex. IQ

6

Applied research

research that solves a problem in society ex. cancer research

7

basic research

answers a fundamental question of how something works
NEED this for applied research

8

Genetic material must

contain, in a stable form, the information about an organism's cell structure, functiondevelopment, and reproduction
-must be able to be expressed
-must replicate accurately
must be capable of change

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DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid

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RNA

ribonucleic acid

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dsDNA

double stranded DNA

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Watson and Crick designed a molecular strucure based on

X-ray diffraction from Franklin
Chargaff's rule
polymer of nucleotides
knowledge of chemistry

13

nucleoside

base + sugar

14

Chargaff's rule

1:1 ration of A:T and G:C

15

Franklin and Wilkins concluded

DNA is helical
distinct regularities
Periodicities
360o = 3.4 nm
between bases 0.34 nm
Therefore, 10 base pairs/turn

16

major and minor grooves

grooves formed by angle of glycosidic bond

17

DNA vs RNA

RNA: hydroxyl group at 2' carbon, uracil, genetic material for some viruses
DNA: H at 2' carbon, thymine, genetic material from all known prokaryotes and eukaryotes

18

RNA structure

almost never linear
secondary structure important for protein recognition

19

DNA in prokaryotes

circular, found in nucleoid

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negative supercoiling

untwisting the DNA

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positive supercoiling

twisting DNA more

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topoisomerase

controls amount and type of supercoiling

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topoisomerase I

nicks 1 side of backbone

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topoisomerase II

cuts both strands

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bacteria DNA packaging

with supercoiling

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DNA location in eukaryotes

nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts

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C value

amount of haploid DNA in base pairs

28

C value paradox

more DNA (C value) does not mean there is increased complexity of an organism

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karyotype

complete set of chromosomes

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chromatin

DNA + proteins

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histones

help to pack the chromatin
positively charged bc DNA is negatively charged (phosphate groups)

32

Histone types

H1, H2A, H2B, H3, H4

33

nonhistones

various types
DNA replication
DNA repair
transcription
translation

34

nucleosome

DNA around a histone

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10 nm fiber

nucleosomes and linker DNA

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30 nm fiber

nucleosomes are wound up

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chromosome scaffold

30 nm fiber attached to this

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linker DNA

DNA bt nucleosomes

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Euchromatin

chromatin that exhibits normal condensation and decondensation during cell cycle.
Genes are activity being transcribed
Typically devoid of repetitive sequences

40

Heterochromatin

chromatin that is packed tightly

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Heterochromatin types

constitutive chromatin
facultative chromatin

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Constitutive chromatin

heterochromatin that is present in all cells in the same location on every chromosome
ex. centromere

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facultative chromatin

heterochromatin that can change during development
condenses or decondenses depending upon status of the cell

44

Centromere

Constitutative heterochromatin
tandomly repeated DNA sequence
from a constrictive region on chromosomes
mitotic spindle fibers attach to these

45

Telomeres

tandemly repeated DNA at the ends of linear chromosomes
Protects the stability of chromosoems from enzymes (exonucleases and DNA repair enzymes)

46

Unique-sequence DNA

occurring once or a few times in the genome
-proteins

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Repetitive DNA

can occur a few times to 1 million times
-telomeres
-centromeres
-ribosomal RNA

48

Dispersed repeated sequences

repetitive DNA that is distributed at regular intervals
sequences that can copy and paste themselves

49

tandemly repeated DNA

repeats many times in a row
-telomeres