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1

Transposable Elements

segments of DNA that have the capacity to move in the genome

2

Replicative transposition

retrotransposons. TE is duplicated, made into RNA, treverse transcribed to DNA
DNA is transposed/inserted somewhere in genome
copy and paste

3

Conservative transpotition

TE is cut out of chromosome inserted elsewhere
cut and paste

4

Genes found in transposable elements

transposase (endonuclease) that cuts DNA (excise)
Reverse transcriptase
repeats at ends of transposable elements
recombine into genome

5

terminal repeats

repeats at ends of transposable elements

6

TE recognize genome in...

distrupt reading frame
-splice site nucletotides
insertion in regulatory sequence (new expression pattern)
fuse gene A and B together
Messy

7

Transposable element types

autonomous
nonautonomous

8

Autonomous TE

can move by themselves
encode transposase and other genes required to move it

9

Nonautonomous TE

lack transposase gene -cannot move by themselves -need autonomous

10

Cell cycle

M phase
Interphase

11

M phase

mitotic phase

12

Interphase

chromosomes are being replicated in prep for cell division
There are checkpoints, proteins assemble, etc
carrying on normal cell function

13

Interphase subphases

G1 -gap phase
S phase
G2

14

G1 phase

each chromosome is composed of a single chromatid, containing 1 DNA sequence

15

S phase

synthesis phase.
each chromatid is replicated so that each chromosome contains two identical DNA molecules, called sister chromatids

16

G 2 phase

each chromosome now consists of two sister chromatids

17

Meiosis

2 successive rounds of a cell after only one round of DNA replication

18

Gametogenesis

formation of haploid gametes in animals

19

sporogenesis

formation of haploid spores in plants and fungi

20

Crossing over

occurs during prophase I
Genetic recombination
non-coding DNA helps pair homologs up

21

genetic recombination

produce new allele combinations in a chromatid
during prophase I

22

chiasma

crosslike structure where crossing over occurs

23

synapse

align according to areas of homology

24

tetrad

homologous pair of chromosomes each with 2 sister chromatids