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Flashcards in Final Terms Deck (35)
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1

Molecular Genetics

structure and function of genes and how they are regulated

2

Transmission genetics

how traits are transmitted from generation to generation

3

population genetics

the study of heredity in a group of individuals
studying one or a few genes

4

quantitative genetics

study of heredity of polygenetic and multifactorial traits

5

cytogenetics

analyzes the structure and number of chromosomes

6

C value

amount of haploid DNA
amount does not always coorelate with a more complex organism

7

genome

all of the genetic material in an organism

8

DNA

deoxyribonucleic acid
Has an H at 2' C

9

RNA

ribonucleic acid
Has an OH at 2' C

10

Antiparallel

backbone of DNA runs antiparallel to each other

11

Double Helix

2 strands of DNA twisted together

12

Nucleotide

Nitrogenous base
Pentose sugar
Phosphate group

13

major groove

wider groove in helix, where DNA is recognized
due to the glycosidic bond

14

minor groove

smaller groove in the helix
due to the glycosidic bond

15

nucleic acids

DNA and RNA

16

Phosphate group

negatively charged molecule that bonds to 5' and 3' carbons of the sugar

17

Deoxyribose sugar

in DNA-has an H at 2' C

18

Ribose sugar

in RNA- has an OH at 2' C

19

NItrogenous bases

A,T,G,C

20

PHosphodiester bonds

bond between the phosphate group and pentose sugar

21

chromosomes

tightly coiled DNA

22

chromatin

Chromosomes and histones

23

histones

proteins that DNA wraps around

24

nucleosomes

10 nm fiber of packed DNA

25

euchromatin

chromatin that is loosely packed and being actively transcribed

26

heterochromatin

chromatin that is tightly packed and not actively transcribed

27

epigenetics

change in genetic activity without a change in the code

28

bidirectional replication

replication moves in both directions along the strand

29

semiconservative replication

one strand is parent and the other is novel

30

semidiscontinuous replication

one part of replication is continuous while the other is discontinuous