Flashcards in Exam 2 part 2 Deck (12)

1

## Genetic significance of meiosis

###
each gamete at the end carries only one copy of each chromosome

Homologous chromosomes end up at one pole or the other at random

Chromosomes don't influence each other's segregation

crossing over between maternal and paternal homologs during meiosis I creates new allele combinations

2

## Law of Segregation

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comes from monohybrid cross

homologous chromosomes end up at one pole or the other at random

recessive traits are masked in F1 generation and reappear in specific proportion in F2 gen

2 alleles segregate during formation of gametes in anaphase I

3

## Mendel's monohybrid cross

###
gave rise to law of segregation

cross between true-breeding strains of pease with alternative forms of a single trait

peas had homozygous filial genotypes

4

## Dominance

### masking of traits by gain or loss of function mutations

5

## How do you know if an individual with a dominant phenotype is homozygous or heterozygous?

### Testcross

6

## Testcross

###
cross of unknow genotype possing the dominant phenotype with a known homozygous recesive individual (tester)

Then analyze progeny

7

## Law of independent assortment

###
came from dihybrid cross

chromosomes don't influence each other's segregation

the two causative genes for two pairs of traits assort independently of one another

pairs of alleles for genes on different chromosomes segregate independently in the formation of gametes

8

## The product rule

### the probability of 1 independent events occuring simultaneously is the product of their individual probabilities

9

## the sum rule

### the probability of either one of several independent, mutally exculsive event is the sum of their individual probabilities

10

## Binomial theorem

###
the probability that a situation will occur when there are multiple ways to get a combination

EQUATION

11

## Human diseases that follow Mendelian inheritance

###
Huntington's

Albinism

PKU

Sickle Cell

etc

12