Final terms part 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final terms part 5 Deck (34)
1

bioinformatics

combines biology and computer science
-find DNA with a sequence of interest
-align sequences to look for similarities
-predict structure and therefore function of RNAs and proteins

2

transciptomics

study of the complete set of transcripts that are produced by a genome under a specific condition

3

reverse transcriptase

transcribes DNA from RNA

4

orthologous genes

similar genes between species

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paralogous genes

genes with similar function in same species

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homologous genes

related genes

7

pharmacogenomics

tailoring drugs based on genetic information

8

PCR

amplifies DNA

9

cDNA

DNA based off of RNA
no introns

10

Real-time PCR

measures the increase in the amount of PCR product during the thermocycling reaction

11

RNA seq

method provides you with the sequences of all the transcripts in a sample

12

genetic engineering

human manipulation of an organism's genome

13

transformation

genetic alteration of a cell by uptaking a piece of DNA

14

clone

genetically identical

15

DNA marker

a specific region of DNA that varies among individuals

16

DNA polymorphisms

one of two or more alternate forms of a chromosomal locus that differ in nucleotide sequence or have variable numbers of repeated nucleotide units

17

SNPs

single nucleotide polymorphism

18

copy number variants

alterations of the genome that results in a cell having a variation in the number of copies of one or more section of DNA

19

RFLP

technique that exploits variations in homologous DNA sequences

20

shotgun sequencing method

used to sequence long DNA strands

21

Human genome project

used shotgun sequencing and Sanger sequencing to find the entire human genome

22

Sanger method

chain terminating
polymerase adds nucelotides starting from a primar ased on complementary sequences
ddNTP

23

next generation sequencing

affix DNA to solid support and was DNA NTPs across the DNA
light is emitted
faster and cheaper than shotgun sequencing

24

annotation

identification and description of genes and their inportant sequences
goal to assign functions to all of the genes in an organsim

25

haplotype

set of SNPs that are close together on a chromosome

26

cloning vector

circular DNA of known sequence

27

Southern blotting

used to detect a specific sequence in a sample

28

restriction enzyme

naturally occuring, cut genome in specific place

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exonuclease

cuts ends of nucleic acids

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endonuclease

cuts within nuclei acids

31

transgene

gene that is inserted into a cloning vector

32

restriction mapping

use of restriction enzymes to map their locations on a plasmid

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recombination hot spot

area of chromosome where recombination is likely to occur

34

recombination cold spot

area of chromosome where recombination usually does not occur