Final Terms Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Terms Part 2 Deck (32)
1

Okazaki fragment

fragments in the lagging strand

2

heliase

breaks the hydrogen bonds between base pairs to unzip DNA

3

SSB protein

prevents strands from reannealing

4

primase

lays down a short RNA primer

5

DNA polymerase

adds complementary base pairs starting off a primer

6

ligase

seals the backbone nick between adjacent framents

7

topoisomerase

alter the supercoiling by nicking the backbone

8

transcription

DNA->RNA

9

template strand

strand that is transcribed

10

coding strand

strand that is not transcribed - code will look like RNA's

11

consensus sequence

genetic sequence found with minor variations and similar functions in widely diverse organisms

12

centromeres

constitive heterochromatin
from a constrictive region on chromosomes mitotic spindle fibers attach to these

13

telomeres

tandemly repeated DNA at the ends of linear chromosomes
protects the ends of chromosome from exonucleases

14

exons

expressed
transcribed and often translated

15

introns

transcribed but not translated -removed

16

5' capping

protects RNA from exonucleases because they can't cut 5'-5'
necessary for correct position of ribosome during translation

17

polyadenylation

mRNA is cleaved at a polyA site to terminate transcription
50-250 adenine nts added to the 3' end by polyA polymerase
protection from 3' to 5' exonucleases
part of gene expression regulation

18

gene regulatory elements

occurs throughout the central dogma
gives cell specialized role
gene product dosage
nuclear exprot from envelope
response to change in environment
development stages

19

enhancer

DNA sequence that is bound by activators to increase transcription of gene

20

activators

protein that binds to enhancers
have 2 domains: DNA building domain and transcription activation domain

21

repressors

proteins that bind silencers

22

silencers

DNA sequence that is bound by repressors to decrease transcription of gene

23

mRNA splicing

removal of introns by spliceosome

24

alternative splicing

some RNA is spliced differently to produce a different protein

25

spliceosome

performs the removal of introns

26

rRNA

ribosomal RNA - component in ribosome

27

snRNA

small nuclear RNA- usually involved in splicing

28

translation

RNA to protein

29

polypeptide

chain of amino acids

30

protein

polypeptide that is folded to perform a function

31

amino acids

composed of -NH2 and -COOH
make up polypeptides
each have unique features governed by R group

32

codon

3 bp sequence that codes for an amino acid