Final Terms Part 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Terms Part 3 Deck (31)
1

charged tRNA

plays an important role in translation, charged when an animo acid is attached to it, transfers the a.a. to the ribosome

2

anticodon

3 nucleotide sequence on tRNA that recognizes a codon on RNA

3

genetic code

open reading frame that codes for proteins

4

degeneracy

redundant- more than 1 codon occurs for each a.a. the 3rd nt might be different

5

wobble

base pair between tRNA anticodon and mRNA
codon doesn't ecessarily follow complimentary rules at 3rd nucleotide

6

open reading frame

(ORF)
the codons of mRNA that are read sequentially to specific amino acis

7

ribosome

has large and small subunit- used to create proteins

8

mutation

change in genetic code

9

mutagen

mutation causing agent
chemicals, UV, radiation, etc

10

nonsense mutation

causes a premature stop codon

11

missense mutation

causes a different amino acid to be placed

12

frameshift

insertion or deletion causes reading frame to shift

13

neutral muation

replacing 1 amino acid with a similar amino acid (from same group)
mild or no phenotypic effect

14

silent mutation

change 1 codon fro a.a. mutates to a codon that codes for the same a.a.

15

point mutation

replacement of a single nt

16

gain of function

cause gene product to have more activity

17

loss of function

results in partially or fully nonfunctional gene product

18

null allele

fully nonfunctional gene product

19

transposable elements

segments of DNA that have the capacity to move in the genome

20

chromatin remodeling

histone core is moved so that the gene is accessable for transcription

21

RNAi

regulatory RNAs control target mRNA degradation

22

DNA methylation

CpG islands-methyl groups attach to promoter and gene cannot be transcribed

23

histone acetylation

acetyl groups on histones that mask their positive charge so that affiliation between DNA and histones is lessened

24

hairpin RNA

secondary structure of RNA (almost never linear) important for protein recognition

25

RNA half-life

can provide information about the stability of different RNA types - might have something to do with the poly A tail

26

aneuploidy

not a multiple of normal haploid set; one or more extra/missing chromosomes

27

chromosomal deletion

piece of chromosome gets deleted
usually because of a deletion loop

28

duplication

occurs during recombination
piece of chromosome is duplicated
results in two normal, one duplicated and one deleated chromosomes

29

translocation

piece of one chromosome moves to another
can be nonreciporcal or reciporcal (swapping)

30

inversion

segment of chromosome reinserted backwards

31

fragile sites

narrow parts of some chromosomes
trinucleotide repeat expansion