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Flashcards in Exam 1 Deck (217):
1

During the golden age of microbiology, what where scientists looking for

What causes Fermentation
what causes disease
How can we prevent disease and infection

2

Who was responsible for finding out that we should wash our hands

Ignaz Semmelweis

3

Who was responsible for creating antiseptic techniques

Joseph Lister

4

Who was the first to show infection control/ediology

John snow

5

Who was the one that created a smallpox vaccination and created the feild of immunology

Edward Jenner

6

What are the processes of life

Growth
Reproduction
Responsiveness
Metabolism

7

What are the features of prokaryotes

No nucleus
No membrane bound organelles
Circular DNA

8

What are the features of Eukaryotes

Have nucleus
Membrane bound organelles
Linear DNA

9

What are Glycocalyces

Gelatinouns sticky substance that surrounds cells

10

What are the two types of Glycocalyces

Capsule
Slime layer

11

What does the capsule glycocalyx allow bacteria to do

Evade host immune system

12

What does a slime layer glycocalyx allow bacteria to do

Attatch to surfaces

13

What do bacterial cell wall allow them to do

Withstand osmotic forces

14

What are bacterial cell walls composed of

Peptidoglycan

15

What type of bacterial cell wall has a thick layer of peptidoglycan

Gram +

16

What type of bacterial cell wall has a thin layer of peptidoglycan

Gram -

17

What colours do gram + and gram - bacteria turn in a gram stain

Gram + Purple
Gram - pink/red/magenta

18

How can m/c pass through a bacterial membrane passivly

Diffusion
Facilitated diffusion
Osmosis

19

How can m/c pass through a bacterial membrane activly

Active transport
Group translocation

20

What happens when a cell is placed into a hypertonic solution

The cell loses water and shinks

21

What happens when a cell without a cell wall is placed into a hypotonic solution

The cell takes on water and can burst

22

What happens when a cell with a cell wall is placed in a hypotonic solution

Water moves into the cell, but it wont burst

23

What are inclusion

Reserve deposits of chemicals in the cytoplasm of bacteria

24

What are endospores

Defensive capsule bacteria can make, so that they "hibernate" until the conditions are favorable again

25

How big a prokaryote ribosomes

70s

26

How big are eukaryote ribosomes

They have a 60s subunit and a 40s subunit

27

What is resolution when talking about microspoy

shortest distance between two specime that can still be distinguished by an observer

28

What is the point of staining for microsopy

To increase the contrast

29

What are the two stains used in a Gram stain

Crystal Violet (purple)
Safarnin (pink)

30

What are the two stains used in Acid-Fast stain

Methylene blue (blue)
Carbol fuchsin (red)

31

What are the two stains used in an endospore stain

Malachite green (green)
Safranin (pink)

32

What is the purpose of an Acid-fast stain

to look for mycobacteria

33

Why do we need to use acid to stain mycobacteria

Because they have a waxy mycolic cell wall that need acid to stain

34

What is the colour of a positive acid-fast stain

Red = mycobacteria

35

What is the colour of a positive Endospore stain

Green = endospore

36

What do most gram + bacteria names end in

Us
ium

37

What are the special Gram + bacteria that dont end in Us/ium

Listeria
Nocardia
Actinomyces
Streptomyces

38

What do most gram - bacteria names end in

a
er

39

What are the special gram - bacteria that dont end in a/er

Pseudomonas
Proteus
Vibrio
Haemophilus
Bacterioides

40

What do the names of acid-fast bacteria have in common

Mycobacter

41

What bacteria gives a fried egg look

Mycoplasma

42

who created binomial nomenclature (genus species)

Linnaeus

43

Who proposed that there are 3 domains (bacteria, archaea, eukarya)

Carl Woese

44

What is a series of paired statments where only one of two choices applies to any particular organism, Used in determination of species

Dichotomous key

45

What is an aggregation of cells arising from a single parent cell

Colony

46

What is a collection of microbes in a complex community

Biofilm

47

What type of bacteria like light for energy and CO2 for carbon

Photoautotrophs

48

What type of bacteria like light for energy and organic compounds for carbon

Photoheterotrophs

49

What type of bacteria like chemical compounds for energy and CO2 for carbon

Chemoautotrophs

50

What type of bacteria like CHemical compounds for energy and organic compounds for carbon

Chemohetrerotrophs

51

What type of bacteria like cold temperatures

Psychrophilic bacteria

52

What type of bacteria like moderate temperatures

Mesophilic

53

What type of bacteria like high temperature

Thermophilic

54

What type of bacteria like extreme high temp

Hyperthermophilic

55

What type of bacteria like high (basic) pH

Basophilies

56

What type of bacteria like Low (acidic) pH

Acidophilies

57

What are the major growth requirements for microbes

Oxygen
Temp
pH
moisture
Osmotic pressure
Light
Food

58

What is a defined media

A media where all the components are known

59

What is a complex media

A media where the components are unknown

60

What is a selective media

Contain substances that favour or inhibit growth of particular organisms

61

What is a differential media

Visible changes in medium or differences in the appearance of colonies

62

What is an example of a selective media

Sabouraud dextrose arar

63

What is an example of differential media

Blood agar

64

What is an example of a Selective and differential media

MacConkey agar

65

What are plasmids

Extra chromosomal DNA that is found in microbes

66

What is the name of a fertility plasmid

F plamids

67

What is the name of a resistance plasmid

R plasmid

68

What is the name of a plasmid that allows for a bacteria to kill other bacteria

Bacteriocin plasmid

69

What is the name of a plasmid that allows for a bacteria to become "bad" in the human body

Virulence plasmid

70

What is vertical gene transfer

Organism replicates their DNA and passes it on to offspring

71

What is horizontal gene transfer

Transfer of DNA to another organism, or acquirement or DNA from environment

72

What are the 3 types of horizontal gene transfer

Transformation
Transduction
Conjugation

73

What type of horizontal gene transfer has the microbe take up DNA from the environemnt

Transformation

74

What type of gene transfer requires the cells to be considered Competent

Transformation

75

What is called when i virus transfers DNA from one microbe to another

Transduction

76

What type of DNA transfer requires a bacteria to have an F plasmid (F+) and the other to not have an F plasmid (F-)

Conjugation

77

What is the shape of a coccus

Sphere

78

What is the shape of a Bacilus

Rod

79

What is the shape of a Vibrio

Bat

80

What is the shape of a Spirochete

Spiral

81

What is the shape of a pleomorphic

Random

82

What are the three methods of Asexual reproduction

Binary fission
Snapping division
Budding

83

What is the result of binary fission

1 mother = 2 daughters

84

What is the result of snapping division

1 mother attached to a daughter (forms a hinge)

85

What is the result of budding

1 mother + 1 daughter

86

What are the different arragments of Cocci

Diplococci
Streptococci
Tetrads
sarcinae
Staphylococci

87

What are the different bacilli arrangments

Single bacilus
Diplobacilli
Streptobacilli
Palasade (v-shaped_

88

What type of bacilli arrangement is caused by snapping division

Palisade

89

How do algae and fungi reproduse

Sexually and asexually

90

What are the characteristics of protozoa

Lack cell wall
Require moist environements
Few are pathogens
mainly reproduce asexually

91

DO all protozoa produce trophozoites

yes

92

Do all protozoa produce cysts

only some

93

What are contractile vacuoles

organelle that pumps water from the cells, protecting them from osmotic lysis

94

What is the significance of fungi in terms of health

Produce antibiotics
30% cause disease (mycoses)
Spoil food

95

What is the thallus of a fungi

Nonreproductive body

96

What are hyphae

long tubular filaments of fungi

97

what is mycelium

Tangled mass of hyphae

98

What are fungi that produce two types of thalli called

Dimorphic

99

What is the mushroom

The fruiting body of a fungi

100

in Fungi, What is a series of buds that remain attached to the parent call called

Pseudohypha

101

What are characteistics of viruses

Acellular
Have DNA or RNA surrounded by a capsid
have intracellular and extracellular state

102

What is the Extracellular state of virus Called

Viron

103

What is a virus envelope

A phospholipid layer around the capsid

104

What is the intracellular state of a virus

Just DNA or RNA

105

What are the different capsid shapes

Polyhedral
Complex
Helical

106

What is the most common viral shape

Polyhedra (decahedron (20 sides))

107

What does a viral envelope provide

Protection from the host recognition system

108

What are the glycoproteins on the viral envelope called

Spikes

109

How are viruses classed

Type of nucleic acid
Presence of envelope

110

What is lytic replication

Replication cycle of a virus that causes lysis of the host cell

111

What is lysogeny

Modified lytic cycle where the host cell is able to live+replicate until a signal stimulates viral replication

112

What is lysogenic conversion

Where phages carry genes that alter phenotype of bacterium

113

How do animal viruses attach

Chemical attraction
Glycoprotein spikes

114

What are the three types of entry of animal virsues

Direct penetration
Endocytosis
Membrane fusion

115

What is it called when an animal virus remains dormant in host cells

Latent viruses
Proviruses

116

How are viruses cultivated in the lab

In mature organisms (bacteria culture)
In embryonated chicken egg
In tissue culture

117

What is a prion

Proteinaceous infectious agents (lack nucleic acid)

118

How are prions destroyed

Incineration
Autoclaving in sodium hydroxide

119

Where do prions normally cause damage

Nervous system

120

What is a tissue characteristic of a prion diseased state

Spongy appearance due to formation of large vacuoles

121

What are the roles of microorganisms in food production

Fermentation
Starter cultures
Spoilage

122

What do bacteria that produce cheese do

They produce acid that curdles the milk

123

What are the two categories fo foodborne illnesses

Food infection
Food intoxificatoin

124

What is a food infection

Consumption of a microorganism

125

What is food intoxification

Consumption of microbial toxins

126

where do the majority of foodborn illnesses come from

Food service industry

127

What type of water is safe to drink

Potable water

128

What indicates fecal contamination of water

presence of Coliforms

129

What are the steps in water treatment

Coagulation + Flocculation
Sedimentation
Filtration
Disinfection

130

What is Bio-remediation

Use of biological organisms to solve an environmental problem

131

What is Bioterrorism

Use of microbes to terrorize human population

132

What is Agroterrorism

Use of microbes to terrorize human populations by destroying food supplies

133

What is the criteria for assessing biological threats

Impact
delivery potential
Public perception
Public preparadness

134

What is the role of Recombinate genetic technology in bioterrorism

Could be used to Make biological weponds or to thwart bioterrorism

135

What is the normal microbiota of a person for their life

Resident microbiota

136

What are transient microbiota

bacteria that remain in the body for a few hours/months before disappearing

137

What are normal flora

Organisms that colonize the body surfaces normally without causing disease

138

What are sites that are free of microbes

Axenic

139

When are most persons resident microbes established

During first months of life

140

What are opportunistic pathgens

Normal microbiota that cause disease under certain circumstances

141

What are reservoirs of infection

Sites where pathogens live until they can infect a new host

142

What are the three types of resevoids

Animal
Human
Nonliving

143

What is a disease that is spread from animal to humans

Zoonoses

144

What are usually dead-end hosts

Humans

145

What are individuals who are infected but are asymptomatic

Carriers

146

Those who develop and illness from a microbe can be called

Cases

147

What is Isolation

Separate ill person from the community

148

What is Quarantine

Restrict movement of well people who may have been exposed

149

What is contamination

Presence of microbes in body

150

What is infection

When a microbe evades the bodys immune system

151

What are the three major portals of entry

Skin
Mucous membranes
Placenta

152

What is parenteral route of entry

Puncture of the skin

153

What is the most common site of microbial entry into a human

Respiratory tract

154

What is antigenicity

The ability of the substance to stimulate the production of antibodies

155

What is pathogenicity

Ability of a microbe to cause disease

156

What is virulence

Degree a pathogenicity

157

Are symptoms subjective or objective

Subjective

158

are signs subjective or objective

Objective

159

What is a syndrome

Group of symptoms and signs

160

What factors contribute to virulence

Adhesion factors
Biofilms
Extracellular enzymes
Toxins
Antiphagocytic factors

161

What is a common adheision factor

Biofilms

162

What do extracellular enzymes do

Allow breakdown of collagen so the microbe can penetrate deeper

163

What are the stages of disease

Incubation
Prodromal period
Illness
Decline
Covalescence

164

What is the stage of disease where tissues return to normal

Covalescence

165

What are the different modes of Transmission

Contact
Vehicle
Vector
Airborne
Perinatal

166

What are the two classes of vectors

Arachnids
Insects

167

What vectors only carry pathogen

Mechanical vectors

168

What vectors serve as hosts

Biological vectors

169

What is the most important arachnid vector

Ticks

170

What are the most important insect vector

Mosquitoes

171

What is the most important of all vectors

Mosquitoes

172

What is incidence in terms of epidemiology

Number of new cases

173

What is prevalence in terms of epidemiology

Total cases

174

What is a pandemic

An epidemic on more than one continent

175

What is an epidemic

a disease occurs at a greater frequence than normal

176

What is the index case

The first case of the disease

177

What type of disease are a result from medical procedures

Latrogenic

178

What is a noscomial infection

Infection acquired in health-care settings

179

What is the most effective way to control noscomial infections

Hand washing

180

What are the basic principals for microbial control

Sterilization
Aseptic procedures
Disinfection

181

What is antisepsis

Use of chemical on skin or other tissue to remove microbe

182

What is degerming

Removal of microbes by scrubbing

183

What is sanitization

Disinfection of a public place

184

What is pasteurization

use of heat to kill pathogens and reduce spoilage of food

185

What suffixes indicate a chemical agent is used to inhibit growth

stasis
static

186

What suffix is used to indicate destroy of permanently inactivate a microbe

cide
cidal

187

What measures the efficacy of an antimicrobial agent

Death rate

188

What are the two actions of an antimicrobial agent

Alteration of cell wall and membranes
Damage to nucleic acid

189

What factos affect efficacy of antimicrobial methods

Site
Susceptibility

190

What are moist heat related methods to kill bacteria

Boiling
Autoclaving
Pasturization
Ultrahigh temp sterilization

191

liquids that have been treated with ultrahigh-temp sterilization can be stored where

at room temperature

192

Can endospores, prions and viruses survive boiling

Yes

193

What type of heat-related microbial killing methods uses hot air and incineration

Dry heat

194

What are physical methods of microbial control

Refrigeration
Freezing
Dessication
Lyophilization
Filtration
Osmotic pressure
Ionizing/nonionizing radiation

195

What is dessication

Drying of food to inhibit growth

196

What is lyophilization

Freeze drying

197

What type of physical method of microbial control uses high concentrations of salt or sugar

Osmotic pressure

198

What have a greater ability to survive osmotic pressure changes

Fungi

199

What are two types of ionizing radiation treatments for food

Electron beams
Gama rays

200

What is a form of nonionizing radiation

UV light

201

What are examples of phenol and phenolics for disinfection

Lysol
Pine-sol

202

What are examples of Alcohols for disinfection

Rubbing alcohols

203

What are examples of halogens for disinfection

Bleach
Chlorine
Iodophores (used in surgery)

204

What are examples of oxidizing agents used in disinfection

Hydrogen peroxide
Ozone

205

What is an issue with hydrogen peroxide for disinfection

It is cytotoxic, kills healthy cells and granulating tissues

206

What should someone use to clean wounds

Saline
Commercial wound cleansers

207

What are examples of surfactants

Soaps
Detergents

208

What is idea in disinfecting adjusting tables

Quats (surfactant)

209

Are soaps antimicrobial

No they are good for degerming

210

What is an example of a heavy metal that was used to disinfection

Silver nitrate
Thimerosal

211

What is an aldehyde

a compound containing CHO groups

212

What is an example of an antimicrobial aldehyde

Glutaraldehyde (dental office, hospitals)
Formalin (embalming)

213

What are examples of gaseous agents used for disinfection

Ethylene oxide

214

What is a common enzyme used for disinfection

Lysozyme

215

What is an enzyme that can remove prions from medical equipment

Prionzyme

216

What type of chemical disinfection method is used to treat diseases

Antimicrobials

217

What are other methods one can use to clean

Essential oils
Steam cleaners