Exam 1 (Fall 2013) Flashcards Preview

Intro to Psychology > Exam 1 (Fall 2013) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 1 (Fall 2013) Deck (47):
1

Wilhelm Wunt

established first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany

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Edward Bradford Titchener

used introspection to search for the mind’s structural elements

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introspection

reporting on sensations and other elements of of experience

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William James and Mary Whiton Calkins

legendary teacher James mentored Calkins, who became a pioneering memory researcher and the first woman to be president of the American Psychological Association.

5

John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner

working with Rayner, Watson championed psychology at the science of behavior and demonstrated conditioned responses on a baby who became famous as “little Albert”.

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B.F Skinner

leading behaviorist, Skinner rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior.

7

Sigmund Freud

the controversial ideas of this famed personality theorist and therapist have influenced humanity’s self-understanding.

8

Charles Darwin

argued that natural selection shapes behaviors as well as bodies.

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Neuroscience

how the body and brain enable emotions, memories and sensory experiences

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Evolutionary

how the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes.

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Behavior genetics

how our genes and our environment influence our individual differences.

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Psychodynamics

how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts

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Cognitive

how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information

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Social-cultural

how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.

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Behavioral

how we learn observable responses

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3 main levels of analysis

Biological, psychological, social-cultural.

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Basic research

pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.

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Applied research

scientific study that aims to be solve practical problems.

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Counseling psychologists

help people to cope with challenges and crises (academic, vocational, marital) and to improve their personal and social functioning.

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Clinical psychologists

assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavior disorders.

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Psychiatrists

also may provide psychotherapy, are medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs and otherwise treat physical causes of psychological disorders.

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Hindsight bias

“I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon. Predict the past. Rationalizing results

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Overconfidence error

people are more confident than they are accurate

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Perceiving order in random events

eagerness to make sense, prone to receive patterns, wrong idea of what random looks like.

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Curious

always asking new questions

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Skeptical

not accepting “fact” as true without challenging it. Attempts to disprove.

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Humble

seeking the truth rather than trying to be right

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Critical thinking

examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.

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Theory

explains with principles that organize observations and predict behaviors or events.

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Hypotheses

testable predictions consistent with theory.

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Operational definitions

a statement of the procedures used to define research variables

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Case study

analyses of special individuals

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Naturalistic observation

watching and recording the natural behavior of many individuals without manipulating or controlling the situation.

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Surveys/Interviews

asking people questions, self-report

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randomly sampled

technique for making sure every individual in a population has an equal chance of being in sampled

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Correlation

one trait or behavior is related to another

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Correlation coefficient

statistical measure of how closely the two traits are related to each other.

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Scatterplots

helps reveal how strongly the two things are related. Correlation positive if rise and fall together.

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Control group

the group that is not exposed to the treatment in an experiment

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Independent variables

the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.

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Dependent variables

the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.

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Placebo effect

experimental results caused by expectations alone

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Heritability

the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes

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Gene-environment interaction

we adapt to our environment (being treated warmly->extroverted) people respond differently

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Cultural norms

an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior (“proper”)

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Individualism

giving priorities to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.

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Collectivism

giving priority to the goals of one’s group (often one’s extended family or work group) and defining identity accordingly.