Flashcards in Exam 1 (Fall 2013) Deck (47):
established first psychology laboratory at the University of Leipzig, Germany
Edward Bradford Titchener
used introspection to search for the mind’s structural elements
reporting on sensations and other elements of of experience
William James and Mary Whiton Calkins
legendary teacher James mentored Calkins, who became a pioneering memory researcher and the first woman to be president of the American Psychological Association.
John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner
working with Rayner, Watson championed psychology at the science of behavior and demonstrated conditioned responses on a baby who became famous as “little Albert”.
leading behaviorist, Skinner rejected introspection and studied how consequences shape behavior.
the controversial ideas of this famed personality theorist and therapist have influenced humanity’s self-understanding.
argued that natural selection shapes behaviors as well as bodies.
how the body and brain enable emotions, memories and sensory experiences
how the natural selection of traits has promoted the survival of genes.
how our genes and our environment influence our individual differences.
how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
how we encode, process, store, and retrieve information
how behavior and thinking vary across situations and cultures.
how we learn observable responses
3 main levels of analysis
Biological, psychological, social-cultural.
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
scientific study that aims to be solve practical problems.
help people to cope with challenges and crises (academic, vocational, marital) and to improve their personal and social functioning.
assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavior disorders.
also may provide psychotherapy, are medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs and otherwise treat physical causes of psychological disorders.
“I-knew-it-all-along” phenomenon. Predict the past. Rationalizing results
people are more confident than they are accurate
Perceiving order in random events
eagerness to make sense, prone to receive patterns, wrong idea of what random looks like.
always asking new questions
not accepting “fact” as true without challenging it. Attempts to disprove.
seeking the truth rather than trying to be right
examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
explains with principles that organize observations and predict behaviors or events.
testable predictions consistent with theory.
a statement of the procedures used to define research variables
analyses of special individuals
watching and recording the natural behavior of many individuals without manipulating or controlling the situation.
asking people questions, self-report
technique for making sure every individual in a population has an equal chance of being in sampled
one trait or behavior is related to another
statistical measure of how closely the two traits are related to each other.
helps reveal how strongly the two things are related. Correlation positive if rise and fall together.
the group that is not exposed to the treatment in an experiment
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied.
the outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
experimental results caused by expectations alone
the proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes
we adapt to our environment (being treated warmly->extroverted) people respond differently
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior (“proper”)
giving priorities to one’s own goals over group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications.