Flashcards in Exam 3 (Fall 2013) Deck (31):
Fundamental Attribution Error
he tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
Peripheral route persuasion
occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness.
Central route persuasion
occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.
Cognitive dissonance theory
we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent.
Normative social influence
influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.
Informational social influence
influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality.
stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining s common goal than when individually accountable.
the loss of self awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.
the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
an unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.
unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members
The Scapegoat theory
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.
the tendency to recall faces of one’s own race more accurately than faces of other races.
the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.
Mere exposure effect
seeing something a lot increases liking of it.
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another (usually beginning of relationship)
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
unselfish regard for the welfare of others.
Social exchange theory
maximize benefits and minimize costs
an expectation that people will help those who helped them
seeking greatest good for greatest number of people
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
both sides assume the worst in the other person
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
The 4 C's
Contact- exposure and interactions—>familiarity—>acceptance—>connection
Cooperation- finding shared goals
Communication- sometimes with mediators
Conciliation- gestures that reduce tension by showing intention to build alliances