Exam 3 (Fall 2013) Flashcards Preview

Intro to Psychology > Exam 3 (Fall 2013) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 3 (Fall 2013) Deck (31):
1

Fundamental Attribution Error

he tendency for observers, when analyzing another’s behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.

2

Peripheral route persuasion

occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues, such as a speaker’s attractiveness.

3

Central route persuasion

occurs when interested people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts.

4

Foot-in-the-door effect

the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request.

5

Cognitive dissonance theory

we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts are inconsistent.

6

Normative social influence

influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval.

7

Informational social influence

influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality.

8

Social facilitation

stronger responses on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others.

9

Social loafing

the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining s common goal than when individually accountable.

10

Deindividuation

the loss of self awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

11

Group polarization

the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group.

12

Groupthink

the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.

13

Prejudice

an unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members

14

Stereotype

a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people.

15

Discrimination

unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members

16

The Scapegoat theory

the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame.

17

Other-race effect

the tendency to recall faces of one’s own race more accurately than faces of other races.

18

Just-world phenomenon

the tendency for people to believe the world is just and that people therefore get what they deserve and deserve what they get.

19

Mere exposure effect

seeing something a lot increases liking of it.

20

Passionate love

an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another (usually beginning of relationship)

21

Compassionate love

the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.

22

Altruism

unselfish regard for the welfare of others.

23

Social exchange theory

maximize benefits and minimize costs

24

Reciprocity

an expectation that people will help those who helped them

25

Utilitarianism

seeking greatest good for greatest number of people

26

Conflict

a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas

27

Social trap

a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.

28

Mirror-image perceptions

both sides assume the worst in the other person

29

Superordinate goals

shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation

30

The 4 C's

Contact- exposure and interactions—>familiarity—>acceptance—>connection
Cooperation- finding shared goals
Communication- sometimes with mediators
Conciliation- gestures that reduce tension by showing intention to build alliances

31

Ostracism

social exclusion, threatens one’s need to belong