Exam 4 (Winter 2014) Flashcards Preview

Intro to Psychology > Exam 4 (Winter 2014) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 4 (Winter 2014) Deck (36):
1

concepts

a mental grouping of similar objects, ideas, events, or people.

2

prototype

a mental image or best example of a category.

3

algorithms

a methodical, logical role or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem.

4

heuristic

a simple thinning strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently

5

insight

a sudden realization of a problem’s solution; contrasts with strategy-based solutions.

6

confirmation bias

a tendency to search for information that supports our preconceptions and to ignore or distort contradictory evidence

7

availability heuristic

estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common

8

overconfidence

the tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate the accuracy if our beliefs and judgments

9

belief perseverance

clinging to one’s initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.

10

framing

the way an issue is posed

11

identify some of the “perils” and “powers” of intuition.

Intuition is huge, usually adaptive, recognition born of experience. Can be perilous when we over feel and under think.

12

linguistic determinism

Wharf’s hypothesis that language determines the way we think

13

intelligence

mental quality consisting of the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations.

14

general intelligence (g)

a general intelligence factor that, acceding to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test.

15

multiple intelligences

Gardner. naturalist, linguistic, interpersonal, logical-mathematical, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial.

16

Sternberg three intelligences

analytical (academic problem-solving) intelligence-assessed by tests, which present well-defined problems having a single right answer. Such test predict school grades reasonably well and vocational success more modestly
creative intelligence- demonstrated in reacting adaptively to novel situations and generating novel ideas
practical intelligence- required for everyday tasks with multiple solutions.

17

savant syndrome

a condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill. Gardner used it

18

creativity

the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

19

Components of creativity

expertise, imaginative thinking skills, a venturesome personality, intrinsic motivation, and a creative environment.

20

characteristics of emotional intelligence

perceiving, understanding, managing, using emotions to enable adaptive or creative thinking

21

What contribution did Francis Galton make to the study of intelligence?

assessed “intellectual strengths” based on reaction time, sensory acuity, muscular power, and body proportions.

22

Who created the first individualized test of intelligence? For what purpose was it created?

Alfred Binet. To objectively identify children with special needs.

23

Who coined the term “Intelligence Quotient” or IQ?

William Stern

24

achievement tests

a test designed to assess what a person has learned

25

aptitude tests

a test designed to predict a person’s future performance; the capacity to learn

26

standardization

defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group

27

validity

the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to

28

reliability

the extent to which a test yields consistent results

29

normal curve

the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes

30

crystallized intelligence

our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tend to increase with age

31

fluid intelligence

our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood

32

stereotype threat

a self-confirming concern that one will be evaluated cased on a negative stereotype

33

motivation

a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior

34

instinct

a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned.

35

drive reduction theory

the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need

36

What percent of Americans are overweight, according to the text?

34%