Exam 3 (Winter 2014) Flashcards Preview

Intro to Psychology > Exam 3 (Winter 2014) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 3 (Winter 2014) Deck (53):
1

recall

retrieving information that is not currently in your conscious awareness but that was learned at an earlier time. A fill-in-the-blank question tests your recall

2

recognition

identifying items previously learned. A multiple-choice question tests your recognition

3

relearning

learning something more quickly when you learn it a second or later time. When you study for a final exam or engage a language used in early childhood, you will relearn the material more easily than you did initially.

4

encoding

the processing of information into the memory system

5

storage

the retention of encoded information over time

6

retrieval

the process of getting information out of memory storage

7

sensory memory

the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system

8

short-term memory

activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten

9

working memory

a newer understanding of short term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory

10

long-term memory

the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.

11

iconic memory

a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.

12

echoic memory

a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3-4 seconds.

13

automatic processing

unconscious encoding f incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.

14

effortful processing

encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.

15

chunking

organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically

16

mnemonics

memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices

17

spacing effect

the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.

18

hierarchies

composed of a few broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts.

19

deep processing

encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention

20

shallow processing

encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words

21

Long term potentiation

an increase in a cell’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.

22

flashbulb memory

a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event

23

implicit memory

retention independent of conscious recollection (also called non declarative memory)

24

explicit memory

memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare” (also called declarative memory)

25

retrieval cues

information associated with other bits of information about your surroundings, mood, positions, etc.

26

priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory

27

mood-congruent memory

the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood.

28

How do context effects influence our memories?

Putting yourself back in the context where you experienced something can prime your memory retrieval

29

What brain structures are related to the different types of memory (implicit, explicit)?

Explicit: the frontal lobes and hippocampus
Implicit: cerebellum and basal ganglia

30

How does stress influence memory?

Emotional arousal can sear certain events into the brain, while disrupting memory for neutral event around the same time.

31

Understand concepts related to short-term/working memory, such as length of retention and capacity.

Short-term memory can retain about 7 bits of information (give or take 2)
Working memory capacity depends on age and other factors. Young adults have more working memory capacity. Their ability to multitask is greater.

32

serial position effect

our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.

33

encoding failure

we cannot remember what we have not encoded

34

storage decay

even after encoding something well, we sometimes later forget it

35

retrieval failure

stored information cannot be accessed, which leads to forgetting

36

proactive interference

the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information

37

retroactive interference

the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information

38

repression

in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.

39

misinformation effect

incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event

40

source amnesia

attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.

41

déjà vu

that eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience

42

Identify some strategies for improving memory.

Study repeatedly
Make the material meaningful
Activate retrieval cues
Use mnemonic devices
Minimize interference
Sleep more
Test your own knowledge, both to rehearse it and to find out what you don’t yet know

43

emotion

a response of the whole organism, invoking (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience

44

James-Lange theory

the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli

45

Cannon-Bard theory

the theory that an emotion arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion

46

two-factor theory

the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal

47

Understand the biological aspects of emotion including the functioning of the ANS, SNS, and PNS

In a crisis, the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the body for action, directing the adrenal glands to release the stress hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline).
When the crisis passes, the parasympathetic division of the ANS gradually calms the body, as stress hormones slowly leave the bloodstream.

48

catharsis

emotional release. In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that “releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.

49

feel-good, do-good phenomenon

people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.

50

subjective well-being

self perceived happiness or satisfaction with life.

51

hippocampus

a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.

52

cerebellum

forming and storing implicit memories created by classical conditioning

53

basal ganglia

deep brain structures involved in motor movement, facilitate formation of our procedural memories for skills