Flashcards in Exam 3 (Winter 2014) Deck (53):
retrieving information that is not currently in your conscious awareness but that was learned at an earlier time. A fill-in-the-blank question tests your recall
identifying items previously learned. A multiple-choice question tests your recognition
learning something more quickly when you learn it a second or later time. When you study for a final exam or engage a language used in early childhood, you will relearn the material more easily than you did initially.
the processing of information into the memory system
the retention of encoded information over time
the process of getting information out of memory storage
the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system
activated memory that holds a few items briefly before the information is stored or forgotten
a newer understanding of short term memory that focuses on conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
the relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3-4 seconds.
unconscious encoding f incidental information, such as space, time, and frequency, and of well-learned information, such as word meanings.
encoding that requires attention and conscious effort.
organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically
memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices
the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
composed of a few broad concepts divided and subdivided into narrower concepts and facts.
encoding semantically, based on the meaning of the words; tends to yield the best retention
encoding on a basic level based on the structure or appearance of words
Long term potentiation
an increase in a cell’s firing potential after brief, rapid stimulation. Believed to be a neural basis for learning and memory.
a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event
retention independent of conscious recollection (also called non declarative memory)
memory of facts and experiences that one can consciously know and “declare” (also called declarative memory)
information associated with other bits of information about your surroundings, mood, positions, etc.
the activation, often unconsciously, of particular associations in memory
the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one’s current good or bad mood.
How do context effects influence our memories?
Putting yourself back in the context where you experienced something can prime your memory retrieval
What brain structures are related to the different types of memory (implicit, explicit)?
Explicit: the frontal lobes and hippocampus
Implicit: cerebellum and basal ganglia
How does stress influence memory?
Emotional arousal can sear certain events into the brain, while disrupting memory for neutral event around the same time.
Understand concepts related to short-term/working memory, such as length of retention and capacity.
Short-term memory can retain about 7 bits of information (give or take 2)
Working memory capacity depends on age and other factors. Young adults have more working memory capacity. Their ability to multitask is greater.
serial position effect
our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list.
we cannot remember what we have not encoded
even after encoding something well, we sometimes later forget it
stored information cannot be accessed, which leads to forgetting
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories.
incorporating misleading information into one’s memory of an event
attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined.
that eerie sense that “I’ve experienced this before.” Cues from the current situation may subconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier experience
Identify some strategies for improving memory.
Make the material meaningful
Activate retrieval cues
Use mnemonic devices
Test your own knowledge, both to rehearse it and to find out what you don’t yet know
a response of the whole organism, invoking (1) physiological arousal, (2) expressive behaviors, and (3) conscious experience
the theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotion-arousing stimuli
the theory that an emotion arousing stimulus simultaneously triggers (1) physiological responses and (2) the subjective experience of emotion
the Schachter-Singer theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal
Understand the biological aspects of emotion including the functioning of the ANS, SNS, and PNS
In a crisis, the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system mobilizes the body for action, directing the adrenal glands to release the stress hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline).
When the crisis passes, the parasympathetic division of the ANS gradually calms the body, as stress hormones slowly leave the bloodstream.
emotional release. In psychology, the catharsis hypothesis maintains that “releasing” aggressive energy (through action or fantasy) relieves aggressive urges.
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood.
self perceived happiness or satisfaction with life.
a neural center located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage.
forming and storing implicit memories created by classical conditioning