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Flashcards in Exam 2 Deck (260):
1

The greatest threats to health in our society today are:

A. environmental toxins
B. accidents
C. chronic diseases
D. contagious diseases caused by specific infectious agents

C. chronic diseases

2

Which of the followi is not associated with elevated coronary risk?

A. Cynical hostility
B. Strong emotional reactions to transient mental stress
C. Obsessive-compulsive disorder
d. Depression

C. Obsessive-compulsive Disorder

3

Why do people tend to act in self-destructive ways?

A. Because many health-impairing habits creep up on them
B. Because many health-impairing habitsinvolve activities that are quite pleasant at the time
C. Becaue the risks tend to lie in the distant future
D. All of the above

D. all the of above

4

Some short-term risks of alcohol consumption include all but which of the following?

A. Hangovers and life-threatening overdoses in combination with other drugs
B. Poor percetual coordination and driving drunk
C. Increased aggressiveness and argumentativeness
D. Transient anxiety from endorphin-induced flashbacks

D. Transient anxiety from endorphin-induced flashbacks

5

Twin studies and other behavioral genetics research suggest that:

A. Genetic factors have littleimpact on people’s weight
B. Heredity has scant influence on BMI but doesinfluence weight
C. Heredity account for 60% or more of the variation in weight
D. Heredity is responsible for severe, morbid obesity but has little influence over the weight of normal people.

C. Heredity account for 60% or more of the variation in weight

6

Which f the following has not been found to be a mode of transmission for AIDS?

A. Sexual contact among homosexual men
B.The sharing of needles by intravenous drug users
C. Sexual contact amongheterosexuals
D. Sharing food

D. Sharing food

7

Regarding the seeking of medical treatment, the biggest problem is:

A. The tendency of many people to delay seeing treatment.
B. The tendency of many people to rush too quickly for medical care for minor problems
C. Not having enough doctors to cover peoples’ needs
D. The tendency of people in higher socioeconomic categories to exaggerate their symptoms

A. The tendency of many people to delay seeing treatment.

8

In which of the following cases are people most likely to follow the instructions they receive from health care professionals?

A. When the instructions are complex and punctuated with impressive medical jargon
B. When they do not fully understand the istructions but still feel the ed to do something
C. When they like and understand the health care professional
D. all of the above

C. When they like and understand the health care professional

9

Which of the following risks is not typically associated with narcotics use?

A. Overdose
B. infectious disease
C. Physical dependence
D. Flashbacks

D. Flashbacks

10

The use of sedatives may reslt in personal injury because they:

A. Cause motor coordination to deteriorate
B. Enhance motor coordination too much, making people overconfident about their abilities
C. Suppress pain warnings of physical harm
D. Trigger hallucinations such as flying

A. Cause motor coordination to deteriorate

11

Can you say stress causes illness? Why or why not?

You can’t say that stress causes illness because you can’t setup a experimental study. You can say there is a positive correlation, a relationship.

12

Define: Atherosclerosis

is a gradual narrowing of the coronary arteries

13

Atherosclerosis is a principal cause of coronary disease. True or False?

True

14

The Set-Point Theory is?

A theory that proposes that the body monitors fat-cell levels to keep them (and weight) fairly stable. When fat stores slip below a crucial set point, the body supposedly begins to compensate for this change. This leads to increased hunger and decreased metabolism.
Genetic factors determine are weight

15

The Setting-Point Theory is?

A theory that proposes that weight tends to drift around the level at which the constellation of factors that determine food consumption and energy expenditure achieve an equilibrium. Weight tends to remain stable as long as there are no durable changes in any of the factors that influence it.
We a can weight based on habit

16

Nutrition is?

a collection of processes (mainly food consumption) through which an organism utilizes the materials (nutrients) required for survival and growth.

17

Define: Biopsychosocial model:

Holds that physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors.

18

Malignant cell growth, which may occur in many organ systems in the body refers to?

Cancer

19

Define: Cancer

Refers to malignant cell growth, which may occur in many organ systems in the body.

20

Define: Coronary heart disease

Results from a reduction in blood flow through the coronary arteries, which supply the heart with blood.

21

What disease results from a reduction in blood flow through the coronary arteries, which supply the heart with blood?

Coronary heart disease

22

Health Psychology is?

is concerned w8ith how psychosocial factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation, prevention, and treatment of illness.

23

What field of psychology is concerned w8ith how psychosocial factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation, prevention, and treatment of illness?

Health Psychology

24

Hostility refers to?

a persistent negative attitude marked by cynical, mistrusting thoughts, feelings of anger, and ertly aggressive actions.

25

When does Chronic diseases develop?

Across many years

26

Contagious diseasses is caused by?

specific infectious agents (such as measles, flu, or luberculosis)

27

What does AIDS stand for?

(acquired immune deficiency syndrome),

28

What is the disorder in which the immune system is gradually weakened and disabled by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)?

AIDS

29

If you are a relatively relaxed, patient, easygoing, amicable behavied person you are Type _____ personality?

Type B Personality

30

If you are a strong competitive orientation, impatience and time urgency, and anger and hostility behavied person, you are Type _____ Personality?

Type A Personality

31

The Immune Response is?

“the body’s defensive reaction to invasion by bacteria, viral agents, or other foreign substances

32

Define: Marijuana

“the hemp plant from which marijuana, hashish, and THC are derived”.

33

Ecstasy (MDMA) is?

a synthetic compound related to amphetamines and hallucinogens.

34

Which drugs are a diverse group of drugs that have powerful effects on mental and emotional functioning, marked most prominently by distortions in sensory and perceptual experience?

Hallucinogens

35

When does Physical dependence exists?

when a person must continue to take a drug to avoid withdrawal illness (which occurs when the drug use is terminated)”.

36

“Recreational” drugs fall under which five categories?

1. Narcotics
2. Sedatives
3. Stimulants
4. Hallucinogens
5. Marijuana

37

A Narcotics is?

A Narcotics (or opiates), “drugs derived from opium that are capable of relieving pain”.

38

A “sleep-inducing drugs that tend to decrease central nervous system and behavioral activity” (e.g., Valium). is a?

Sedatives

39

Define: Stimulants

“drugs that tend to increase central nervous system and behavioral activity” (e.g., “speed”).

40

Meyer Friedman and Ray Rosenman contributed what to health pyschology?

in the 1960s and 1970x were investigating the causes of coronary disease. Origianally interested in the usual factors. They recongnized that a piece of the puzzle was missing. Due to people that smoked, little exercise and overweight, avoided the ravages of heart disease. Other in shape, regard to these risk factors experienced heart attack.
Thye identified stress as an apparent connectionbetween coronary risk and a pattern of behavior they called the Type A personality. 142
They divided people into two basic types A & B personality

41

Define: Self-concept

an organized collection of beliefs about the self”.

42

Another name for self-concept is?

Self-schemas

43

What do beliefs about the self include?

personality traits
abilities
physical features
values
goals
social roles

44

What does possible selves refer to?

“one’s conceptions about the kind of person one might become in the future”.

45

What are the self-perceptions individuals have?

Actual self
Ideal self
Ought self

46

Define: actual self

(qualities people think they actually possess).

47

Define: Ideal self

(qualities people would like to have).

48

Define: Ought self

self (qualities people think they should possess).

49

Self-discrepancies –mismatches between the actual, ideal, and/or ought selves.
True or False

True

50

What are the effects of self-discrepancies?

When the “actual self” falls short of the “ideal self”, we feel dejected and sad.

When the “actual self” falls short of the “ought self”, we feel irritable and guilty.

51

When the “actual self” falls short of the “ideal self”, we feel _____ and _____

dejected, sad

52

When the “actual self” falls short of the “ought self”, we feel _____ and _____..

irritable, guilty

53

How do people cope with self-discrepancies?

Changing their behavior to bring it more in line with the ideal, or ought, self.

Blunting self-awareness

54

How do you blunting self-awareness?

Avoiding situations that increase self-awareness, or

By using alcohol

55

Festinger’s (1954) social comparison theory states what?

that we compare ourselves with others in order to assess and/or improve our abilities.

56

What is A reference group?

is “a set of people who are used as a gauge in making social comparisons”.

57

If we want to improve, we choose reference groups of ______ quality,

superior

58

If we want to bolster self-esteem, we choose ____ groups.

inferior

59

Generally, our self-perceptions are distorted in a positive direction.
True or False"

True

60

Feedback from others is not important in balancing our own observations.
True or False?

False

61

Feedback influence change throughout ours lives, What are those different influences at different developmential stages?

Early childhood- Parents and family members
Adolescences- peers
Adulthood- close friends and marriage partners

62

Social context also affect our self-concept
True or False

True

63

Define: Individualism

“putting personal goals ahead of group goals”

64

Personal attributes is the self-concept held in ______ cultures..

Individualistic

65

Define: Collectivism

“putting group goals ahead of personal goals”

66

In cultures that value collectivism identify more?

in terms of the groups one belongs to

67

People raised in individualistic cultures view themselves in what ways?

Have an independent view of the self.

View themselves as unique, self-contained, and distinct from others.

68

People raised in collectivist cultures view themselves in what ways?

Have an interdependent view of the self.

View themselves as more connected to others

69

What does self-esteem refers to?

one’s overall assessment of one’s worth as a person”.

70

It is a global evaluation of many aspects of the self
True or False?

True

71

Self-esteem can be construed in what two ways?

Trait self-esteem
State self-esteem

72

Trait self-esteem is?

(an enduring sense of confidence in a person).

73

State self-esteem is?

(dynamic feelings about the self that change with the situation).

74

Self-esteem is strongly and consistently connected to?

Happiness

75

People with high self-esteem often feel more?

likeable and attractive
have better relationships
make better impressions on others

76

People with high self-esteem persist _____ in the face of failure and cope ____ with setbacks.

Longer, better

77

Is self-esteem linked to achievement?

No

78

Define: Narcissism

“the tendency to regard oneself as grandiosely

79

Self-important is?

is pathological and different from high self-esteem, a healthy trait.

80

Feeling too good about oneself is desirable.
True or False

False

81

What are some traits of narcissistic individuals?

1. Are preoccupied with fantasies of success.
2. Believe they deserve special treatment.
3. React aggressively when their view of themselves (ego) is threatened

82

Parents play an important role in shaping self-esteem early in life.
True or False?

True

83

What two dimensions of parenting are important to self-esteem?

Parental acceptance.
Parental control.

84

Together, the two dimensions of parenting in order to development high self-esteem yield, what four parenting styles?

authoritative style
Permissive style
Authoritarian Style
Neglectful Style

85

Which parenting style is associated with the highest self-esteem scores.?

Authoritative Style

86

Define: person perception?

“the process of forming impressions of others

87

What five key source of information do we rely on to form impressions of others?

Appearance.
Verbal behavior.
Actions.
Nonverbal messages (e.g., facial expressions, body language, and gestures).
Situations.

88

What is Snap judgments about others?

are those made quickly and based on only a few bits of information and preconceived notions”.

89

What process does snap judgment rely on?

Automatic processing

90

When do we use snap judgment?

we are not motivated to form an accurate impression of another person.

91

Systematic judgments require?

More controlling processing

92

When does systematic judgment occur?

when forming impressions of others that can affect our happiness or welfare.

93

Define: Attributions

are “inferences that people draw about the causes of their own behavior, others’ behavior, and events”.

94

What are the two types of attributions?

Internal attributions
External attributions

95

Internal attributions is used when?

people attribute the cause of others’ behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, or feelings.

96

External attributions is used when?

people attribute the cause of others’ behavior to situational demands or environmental constraints.

97

When are we most likely to make attributions about others?

Others behave in unexpected or negative ways.
When events are personally relevant.
When we are suspicious about others’ motives.

98

What can influence are perception of others?

How we expect others to behave can influence our actual perceptions of them.

99

What is a confirmation bias ?

“seeking information that supports one’s beliefs while not pursuing disconfirming information”.

100

When does self-fulfilling prophecies occur?

when “expectations about a person cause the person to behave in ways that confirm the expectations”

101

What are the three steps of self-fulfilling prophecy?

First, you form an impression of someone.
Second, you behave toward that person in a way that is consistent with your impression.
Third, the person exhibits the behavior you encourage, which confirms your initial impression.

102

What is social categorizations?

cognitive “shortcuts” in which we categorize people on the basis of nationality, race, gender, etc.
how we form groups

103

The ingroup is the?

US

104

The outgroup is the?

Them

105

People who are similar to one another precieve themselves as members of the?

Ingroup

106

Individulas precieve people different from them as members of the?

Outgroup

107

What are the three important results of categorizing?

1. People have more negative attitudes toward outgroup members.
2. People see outgroup members as more alike than they really are (the outgroup homogeneity effect).
3. The visibility of outgroup members is heightened when they comprise the minority in a crowd.

108

What is a stereotype?

A widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics because of their membership in a particular group”.

109

Why are stereotypes persist?

Simplicity. They are less effortful, cognitively. But, the trade-off for simplicity is inaccuracy.
Confirmation bias.
Self-fulfilling prophecy.

110

What does the fundamental attribution error refers to?

The tendency to explain other people’s behavior as the result of personal, rather than situational, factors”.

111

What two steps does making attributions rquire?

1. Focusing on the person (making an internal attribution).
2. Taking the situation into account (allowing for external attributions).

112

Which step of making attributions is more effortful and so often skipped?

Step 2

113

What is a defensive attribution?

“the tendency to blame victims for their misfortune, so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way”.

114

What are the three key themes in person perception?

Efficiency
Selectivity
Consistency

115

What is efficiency within person perception?

when forming impressions of others, we default to automatic processing.

116

What is selectivity within person preception ?

we “see what we expect to see” by focusing on aspects of the person that confirm our expectations

117

What is consistency within person preception?

First impressions do matter! Once a perceiver has formed an impression of someone, he or she tunes out subsequent information. This is called the primacy effect.

118

Define: Prejudice

“a negative attitude toward members of a group”.

119

What does discrimination involves?

behaving differently, usually unfairly, toward the members of a group”.

120

Prejudice and discrimination often go together, and this is always the case True or False?

False

121

Sometimes, we are not even aware of our prejudices as demonstrated by?

the Implicit Association Test.

122

Another name for old-fashioned discrimination is?

Overt discrimination

123

Old-fashioned” discrimination has declined in recent years, True or False?

True

124

A more subtle (“modern”) form of discrimination has emerged. True or False?

True

125

Modern discrimination occurs when?

“people privately harbor negative attitudes toward minority groups, but express them only when they feel such views are justified, or that it’s safe to do so”

126

What are the four causes of prejudice?

1. authoritarian personality,
2. Cognitive distortions and expectations
3. Competition between groups
4. Threats to social identity

127

Which personality type characterized by prejudice toward any group perceived to be different from oneself?

Authoritarian personality

128

Cognitive distortions and expectations involves?

Stereotyping, fundamental attribution error, defensive attributions, and expectations.

129

Competition between groups is’

Perceived threats to one’s group, such as conflict over scarce resources, causes prejudice against outgroup members.

130

Threats to social identity occur?

When the collective self-esteem of a group is threatened,

131

What two response can occur when threats to social identity occur?

Ingroup favoritism.
Outgroup denigration.

132

What strategies can be used to reduce prejudices?

Cognitive strategies

133

Define Cognitie strategies

Make an effort to override stereotypes by using controlled processes

134

What strategies in an Intergroup contact can be used to reduce prejudices?

Superordinate goals

135

What are superordinate goals?

Goals that require two or more groups to work together to achieve mutual ends” can reduce intergroup hostility.

136

What does persuasion involve?

The communication of arguments and information intended to change another person’s attitudes”.

137

What does attitudes includes?

Beliefs and feelings about people, objects, and ideas

138

When is messages most effective?

1.Two-sided arguments are used. This also increases credibility.
2.Persuaders use emotional appeals to shift attitudes.
3.They create positive feelings in the receiver.

139

What affect the ability to maintain a view of the self?

Cognitive processes

140

What two different types of processes are at work that affect the ability to maintain a view of self?

Automatic processing
Controlled processing

141

Define: Automatic processing

default mode in which we handle information without much deliberate decision-making (e.g., going through our morning routine).

142

Define: Controlled processing

active thinking required for important decision-making and analysis.

143

What are Self-attributions?

“inferences that people draw about the causes of their own behavior”.

144

What are the three key dimensions of attributions?

1. Whether they are internal or external.
2. Whether they are stable or unstable
3. Whether they are controllable or uncontrollable.

145

Internal attributions is?

ascribe the causes of behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings”.

146

External attributions is?

“ascribe behavior to situational demands”.

147

Define: Stable attributions

the cause of behavior is unlikely to change over time.

148

Define: Unstable attributions

– the cause of behavior is variable, or subject to change.

149

Which dimension interacts with the internal-external one and yields four types of attributions about success and failure?

Unstable attributions

150

Which dimension simply considers whether or not the individual has any control over the behavior.?

controllable or uncontrollable.

151

What does explanatory style refers to?

the “tendency to use similar causal attributions for a wide variety of events in one’s life”.

152

People who use an _______________ attribute setbacks to external, unstable, and specific factors

optimistic explanatory style

153

People who use a ___________ attribute setbacks to internal, stable, and global factors

pessimistic explanatory style

154

What are the four motives guide self-understanding?

Self-assessment
Self-verification
Self-improvement
Self-enhancement

155

Define: Self-enhancement

desire to maintain positive feelings about oneself.

156

Define: Self-improvement

– looking to successful others in order to improve ourselves.

157

Define: Self-verification

preference for feedback that matches our self-view.

158

Define: Self-assessment

desire for truthful information about oneself.

159

What is Downward social comparison?

a “defensive tendency to compare oneself with someone whose troubles are more serious than one’s own”.

160

What is a Self-serving bias?

“tendency to attribute one’s successes to personal factors and one’s failures to situational factors”.

161

What are the four methods of self-enhancement
?

Downward social comparison
Self-serving bias
Basking in reflected glory
Self-handicapping

162

What is basking in reflected glory"

tendency to enhance one’s image by publicly announcing one’s association with those who are successful”.

163

What is self-handicapping?

“tendency to sabotage one’s performance to provide an excuse for possible failure”.

164

Define: Self-regulation

is “the process of directing and controlling one’s behavior”.

165

According to the ego depletion model, people have a limited amount of )))))))__..

self-control

166

"if you successfully resist temptation to indulge yourself with sweets today, it is more difficult to do so tomorrow.
" if an example of?

Self-control

167

What is Self-efficacy?

– “one’s belief about one’s ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected outcomes” is very important to healthy adjustment.

168

Fortunately, self-efficacy can be _____ and ______.

Learned, changed

169

Self-efficacy can be learned and changed.
This is important to adjustment because?

increasing self-efficacy is beneficial to one’s physical and mental health.

170

Self-efficacy can be developed and usually comes from what four source?

1. Mastery experiences
2. Vicarious experiences
3. Persuasion and encouragement
4. Interpretation of emotional arousal

171

Learning new skills increases self-efficacy. is what type of experience?

Mastery experience

172

Mastery experience is most important?

important to persist in the face of mistakes or failure.

173

What is a vicarious experience?

watching others to learn a new skill.

174

When we try new things, we may become"

Nervous

175

It is important to attribute this to _________needed to do well, rather than fear.

normal arousal

176

What are Self-defeating behaviors?

“seemingly intentional actions that thwart a person’s self-interest”,

177

What three categories does self-defeating behavior come in?

Deliberate self-destruction.
Trade-offs
Counterproductive strategies

178

Define: trade-offs the second category under delf-defeating behaviors.

engaging in short-term, potentially harmful behaviors, in order to pursue healthy long-term goals.

179

What are Counterproductive strategies ?

persisting in ineffective strategies to achieve a goal.

180

A public self is ?

“an image presented to others in social interactions”.

181

we have multiple public selves because?

Public selves can vary according to the situation, or role, that people are in

182

________ is best when there is considerable overlap, or integration, in the various public selves

Adjustment

183

Impression management refers to?

“usually conscious efforts by people to influence how others think of them”.

184

what are the six Impression management strategies?

1. Ingratiation
2. Self-promotion
3. Exemplification
4. Negative acknowledgment
5. Intimidation
6. Supplication

185

Whar are behaving in ways to make oneself likable to others?

Ingratiation

186

Self-promotion is?

accenting your strong points in order to earn respect.

187

Define: Exemplification

“demonstrating exemplary behavior in order to boost your integrity or character”.

188

admitting your flaws is which method of Impression management strategies?

Impression management strategies

189

Intimidation is?

using physical or emotional threats to get what you want from others

190

Define: Supplication

“acting weak or dependent in order to get favors from others”.

191

Research on impression management has identified what patterns of behavior:?

People try to make positive impressions when interacting with strangers.

Shift toward modesty with those who know them well.

192

Define: Self-monitoring

the degree to which people attend to and control the impressions they make on others”.

193

High self-monitors are more concerned about making _________ and are good at interpreting what others see.

favorable impressions

194

Low self-monitors are more likely not to express their true feelings or attitudes.
True or False?

False

195

Building self-esteem is important because individuals with low self-esteem are?

More prone to depression.
More demoralized by failure.
More anxious in relationships

196

What are the Seven guidelines for building self-esteem?

1. Recognize that you control your self-image
2. Learn more about yourself
3. Don’t let others set your goals.
4. Recognize unrealistic goals.
5. Modify negative self-talk
6. Emphasize your strengths.
7. Approach others with a positive outlook.

197

Which of the following statements about the self-concept is false?
A. It is composed of one dominant belief about the self.
B. It is composed of many self-beliefs.
C. It is relatively stable over time.
D. It influences present as well as future behavior.

A. It is composed of one dominant belief about the self.

198

Mismatches between one's actual and ought selves result in lower self-esteem and ?
A. dejection-related feelings.
B. agitation-related feelings.
C. feelings of self-enhancement.
D. No particular feelings.

B. agitation-related feelings.

199

A person reared in a collectivist culture is likely to have an ______ self-view. whereas a person reared in an individualistic culture is likely to have an ______ self-view.
A. self-discrepant; self-consistent
B. self-consistent; self-discrepant
C. independent; interdependent
D. interdependent; independent

D. interdependent; independent

200

Low self-esteem is associated with?
A. happiness
B. high trust of others
C. self-concept confusion
Drecovering after faiture experiences.

C. self-concept confusion

201

Aggression in response to self-esteem threats is more likely to occur in people who are?
A. high in self-esteem
B. low in self-esteem
C Narcissistic
D. self-defeating

C Narcissistic

202

Which of the following is not a basic principle of self-perception?
A. People are cognitive spenders
B. People's explanatory style is related to adjustment
C. people want to receive information that is consistent with their self-views
D. People want to maintain positive feelings about the self.

A. People are cognitive spenders

203

Keisha is upset when a textbook is stolen, but she feels better after she hears that a classmate's book bag, including her cell phone and wallet was stolen. This is an example of
A. the self-serving bias.
B. basking in feflected glory
C. downward comparison
D. self-handicapping

C. downward comparison

204

Which of the following statements about self-efficacy is true?
A. It can be developed by persevering through failure until one achieves success.
B. it is something that one is born with
C. it essentially is the same as self-esteem.
D. it refers to conscious efforts to make a certain impression on others.

A. It can be developed by persevering through failure until one achieves success.

205

The self-presentation strategy of ingratiation involves trying to make others?
A. Respect you
B. fear you
C. feel sorry for you
D. like you

D. like you

206

Which of the following will not help you build higher self-esteem?
A. minimizing negative self-talk
B. Comparing yourself with those who are the best in a given area.
C. working to improve yourself
D. Approaching others with positive expectations.

B. Comparing yourself with those who are the best in a given area.

207

Inferences that people draw about the causes of events their own behavior, and others behavior are called?
A. Snap judgments
B. self-fulfilling prophecies.
C. attributions
D. attitudes

C. attributions

208

Which of the following is not a potential source of cognitive distortion in perception?
A. Categorizing
B. the bystander effect
C. stereotypes
D. defensive attribution

B. the bystander effect

209

Which of the following is not a theme in person perception?
A. efficiency
B. selectivity
C. consistency
D. mindfulness

D. mindfulness

210

Old-fashioned discrimination is ____; modern discrimination is ____?
A. blatant; subtle
B. legal; illegal
C. common; rare
D. race-based; gender-based

A. blatant; subtle

211

Which of the following is a cause of prejudice?
A. Mindfulness
B. Right-wing authoritarianism
C. the fundamental attribution error
D. activites based on superordinate goals

B. Right-wing authoritarianism

212

Compared to attitudes formed via the peripheral route, those formed via the central route:
A. Operate subliminally
B. are more enduring and harder to change.
C. last only a short time
D. are poor predictors of behavior

B. are more enduring and harder to change

213

When people change their outward behavior but not their private beliefs, _____ is operating.
A. Conformity
B. Persuasion
C. obedience
D. Compliance

D. Compliance

214

The results of Milgram's (1963) study imply that:
A. Situational factors can exert tremendous influence over behavior.
B. In the real world most people resist pressures to act in harmful ways.
C. Most people are willing to give obviously wrong answers on rigged perceptual tasks.
D. Disobedience is far more common than obedience.

A. Situational factors can exert tremendous influence over behavior.

215

When charities send prospective donors free address labels and the like, which of the following social influence principles are they manipulating?
A. The consistency principle
B. the scarcity principle
C. the reciprocity principle
D. The foot-in-the-door principle.

C. the reciprocity principle

216

Conformity occurs when?

people yield to real or imagined social pressure.

217

Solomon Asch’s (1955) classic study demonstrated?

that people conformed easily to wrong answers given by others in a mock perception test

218

Conformity also _______, to a point, as group size ________, peaking at seven members.

Increases, increases

219

Define: Conformity

“occurs when people yield to real or imagined social pressure.”

220

Define: Compliance

“occurs when people yield to social pressure in their public behavior, even though their private beliefs have not changed”.

221

What arethe two ways comfority happens?

Normative influence
Informational influence

222

Normative influence is?

“operates when people conform to social norms for fear of negative social consequences”.

223

Informational influence is?

“operates when people look to others for how to behave in ambiguous situations”.

224

Pressure can come from normative and informational influences. True or False?

True

225

The bystander effect is?

“the tendency for individuals to be less likely to provide help when others are present than when they are alone”, is an example of the problem of informational influence.

226

What are three tips for resisting conformity pressures?

1. Pay more attention to social forces operating on you..
2. Identify someone in the group whose views match yours.
3. Bring along a friend with similar views if you know that you will confront pressure

227

Define: Obedience

“is a form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority”.

228

Stanley Milgram’s classic study (1963) demonstrated?

that people’s tendency to obey is strong, even if they are asked to harm another person

229

The results of Millgram’s study where?

1. Obedience is strongest when
2. Demands increase gradually
3. Others take responsibility for your actions
4. We are motivated to meet the authority figure’s expectations

230

Thus, human behavior is determined more by the power of the situation than by the character of the person. True or False?

True

231

What are health psychological concerned with?

How sociological and psychological factors influence are health.

232

Even brief periods of stress can trigger?

acute cardiac symptoms

233

An example for trigger acute cardiac symptoms is?

Angina

234

Angina is more commonly known as?

chest pain

235

What role does psychological factor play with cancer?

stress and personality can affect the course of the disease.

236

There is no direct evidence that stress causes the onset of cancer. True or False?

True

237

There may be a cancer-prone personality. True or False?.

True

238

What is the cancer-prone type personality called?

Type C

239

Type C personality individual are?

Are passive.
Do not complain.
Do not cope well with stress.
Hold in negative emotions, such as anger.

240

What can stress do to the immune system?

Impair the immune functioning in aminals
immune suppression occurs in humans

241

Some signs of Alcohol dependence, or alcoholism, are?

a growing compulsion to drink
impaired control over drinking

242

What happens when someone quits smoking?

their health risks decline reasonably quickly, reaching normal levels after about 15 years

243

What percentage of people are able to quit smoking?

about 25%

244

What increases a smokers changes of successfully quiting?

Social support

245

Weight is explained largely by"

Genetic factors

246

What is the best way to lose weight?

Moderate changes in both diet and exercise

247

What are some ways to reduce ones changes of contracting AIDS?

Have fewer sexual partners.
Wear latex condoms and limit sex acts that allow semen and blood to mix (e.g., anal sex).
Recognize that, despite advances in treatment, HIV is still a life-threatening, serious disease.

248

What is the biggest obstacle to receiving treatment?

procrastination on the part of the patient.

249

Why to people procastinate?

Downplay significance of the symptoms.
Don’t want to look foolish if “it’s nothing”.
Worry about “bothering” their doctor.
Are reluctant to disrupt their plans.
Waste time on trivial matters before going to a hospital emergency room.

250

What are some of the reseason peple might play the sick role?

It absolves people from responsibility.
Fewer demands are placed on sick people.
Illness can provide a “face-saving” excuse for failure.
Sick people receive more attention.

251

The caveman study was first conducted in?

1954

252

The Caveman study of conducted by?

Muzafer Sherif and his colleagues

253

The caveman study was conducted where?

At Robbers' Cave State Park in Oklahoma

254

The caveman study look at?

Competition and prejudice

255

In the caveman study what feelings raised in the children after competitive games were introduced? immediately

Hostile
Then escalated to highly aggressive behavior

256

What does the caveman study and more recent research suggest?

That groups often respond more negatively to competition than individuals do.

257

The fundamental attribution error is"

The tendency to explain other people's behavior as the result of personal, rather than situational factors.

258

The fundamental attribution error tendency differs from stereotyping how?

in the inference are based on actual behavior

259

The tendency of the fundamental attributions error is also called?

Correspondence bias

260

The fundamental attributions error inferences may still be?

Inaccurate