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Flashcards in exam 3 Deck (65):

Interpersonal communication is?

an interactional process in which one person sends a message to another.”


Interpersonal communication involves how many people?

at least two people.


Interpersonal communication is a process involving?

 a series of actions.


Interpersonal communication is “one-way. True or False?



Interpersonal communication travels in a ________.

 bi-directional


What are the six components of the communication process?

 The sender
 The receiver
 The message
 The channel
 The noise
 The context


What is the noise in the communication process?

 Any stimulus that interferes with accurately expressing or understanding a message”.


What is the context in the communication process?

environment in which communication takes place”.


Define: Nonverbal communication

is the transmission of meaning from one person to another through means or symbols other than words”.


What are the six elements of nonverbal communication?

1. Personal space
2. Facial expression
3. Eye contact
4. Body language
5. Touch
6. Paralanguage


Define Proxemics

“the study of personal space”.


Define: Personal space

“a zone of space surrounding a person that is felt to ‘belong’ to that person”.


What are display rules?

Culture-specific norms, called, that govern the expression of emotion
Ex. Man don’t cry or not celebrating after winning


What is the most meaningful element of nonverbal communication?

Duration of Eye contact


What is Kinesics?

The study of communication through body movements


Define: Paralanguage

includes all vocal cues other than the content of the verbal message itself”.


Variations in vocal emphasis can give different meanings to the same words. True or False?



Variations in ______ also convey emotions



Rapid speech when it comes to paralangauge can indicates?

Anxiety or excitement


What are a few misconception about nonverbal cues that indicate deception?

Liars often say less, not more.
Liars are not necessarily good “storytellers” and include less unusual content in stories.
Liars are more tense and make a more negative impression on the listener.


Define: Nonverbal sensitivity

the ability to accurately encode (express) and decode (understand) nonverbal cues”.


Define: Self-disclosure

the act of sharing information about yourself with another person


What three things can can do to be effective listeners?

 Signal your interest in the speaker by using nonverbal cues
 Hear the other person out before you respond.
 Engage in “active listening”


Define: Communication apprehension

or anxiety caused by having to talk with others”


What four responses is communication apprehension fellowed by?

Avoidance – choosing not to participate.
Withdrawal – “clamming up” in conversation you cannot escape.
Disruption – the inability to make fluent statements.
Overcommunication – (e.g., nervous speech).


What are four common barriers of communication?

Motivational distortion


Define: Defensiveness

“excessive concern with protecting oneself from being hurt”.


Define: Ambushing

listening carefully only to then verbally attack the speaker.


Define: Motivational distortion

hearing what you want to hear.


Define: Self-preoccupation

being so self-absorbed the other person cannot equally participate.


What is the conflict advoidence cycle?

(1) people think of conflict as bad,
(2) they get nervous about a conflict they are experiencing,
(3) they avoid the conflict as long as possible,
(4) the conflict gets out of control and must be confronted, and
(5) they handle the confrontation badly. In turn, this negative experience sets the stage for avoiding conflict the next time—usually with the same negative outcome. (Adapted from Lulofs,


What are the styles of managing conflict?

1. Avoiding/withdrawing (low concern for self and others).
2. Accommodating (low concern for self, high concern for others).
3. Competing/forcing (high concern for self, low concern for others).
4. Compromising (moderate concern for self and others).
5. Collaborating (high concern for self and others).


Are polygraphs very acorate?

No, they measure emotions, then a lie detecter


Define: Assertiveness

“involves acting in your own best interests by expressing your thoughts and feelings directly and honestly”.


In contrast, what is submissive communication "

involves “giving in” to others.
Individuals who use this style report feeling bad about being “pushovers”.


Define: Aggressive communication

is different from assertiveness and “focuses on saying and getting what you want at the expense of others”.


The paradox of close relationships is?

Close relationships arouse intense feelings that are both
Positive (passion, concern, caring) and
Negative (rage, jealousy, despair).


What are close relationships?

– “are those that are important, interdependent, and long lasting”.
They come in many forms, including
Family relationships.
Work relationships.
Romantic relationships.


What three factors underlie initial attraction between strangers?

1. Proximity – we are more likely to become involved with people we are geographically, or spatially, close to. Being around
2. Familiarity – the mere exposure effect states that positive feelings toward a person are increased the more often we see them.
3. Physical attractiveness


What is the matching hypothesis?“

proposes that people of similar levels of physical attractiveness gravitate toward each other.”


what is resource exchange?

is an evolution-based theory proposing that “in heterosexual dating, males ‘trade’ occupational status for physical attractiveness in females”.


_______believes mating patterns depend on what each sex has to invest in terms of survival.
For men, reproductive opportunities are the most important, so they show more interest in sexual activity and physical attractiveness.

David Buss (1988)


Parental investment theory is?

states women choose mates that will supply resources needed to support offspring for many years.


Define: Reciprocal liking

refers to liking those who show that they like you”.


Do oppisits attract?



Define: Similarity

we are drawn to those with similar qualities.
This is true in friendships and romantic relationships, regardless of sexual orientation.


What is a big limitation on the research about romatic love?

heterosexism, “or the assumption that all individuals and relationships are heterosexual”.


Which gender is more romantic?

Counter to stereotype, men are actually more romantic than women and fall in love more easily than do women.


Sternberg’s triangular theory of love states?

that all loving relationships are comprised of some combination of three components:
Intimacy – warmth, closeness, and sharing.
Passion – intense feelings (both positive and negative), including sexual desire.
Commitment – “the decision and intent to maintain a relationship in spite of the difficulties and costs that may arise”.


consummate love,is?

The ultimate type of love is consummate love, in which each of the three components is present


Hazen and Shaver (1987) draw a connection between attachment patterns early in life and What three adult attachment types?

1. Secure adults (55% of participants).
2. Avoidant adults (25% of participants).
3. Anxious-ambivalent adults (20% of participants).


Sternberg’s theory predicts that the strength of each of the three components of love varies across time

Passion peaks early in a relationship and then decreases in intensity.
However, both intimacy and commitment increase as time progresses.


What social trends have challenged the “traditional” model of marriage?

1. Increased acceptance of singlehood – since the 1960s, the median age at which people marry has been increasing (see Figure 10.1).
2, Increased acceptance of cohabitation – “living together in a sexually intimate relationship without the legal bonds of marriage”.
3. Reduced premium on permanence.
4. Transitions in gender roles – role expectations are more varied, flexible, and ambiguous.
5. Increased voluntary childlessness.
6. Decline of the “nuclear family”.


Define: Monogamy

the practice of having only one spouse at a time”.


Define: Polygamy

involves “having more than one spouse at a time”.


Define: Endogamy

the tendency of people to marry within their own social group”.


Define: Homogamy

the tendency of people to marry others who have similar personal characteristics”.


What is the family life cycle?

is an orderly sequence of developmental stages that families tend to progress through”.
McGoldrick’s (1988, 1999) model outlines the special challenges that are faced by couples as they progress through six stages of family life


What are the six stages of family life?

1. Between families: the unattached young adult
2. Joining together: the newly married couple
3. Family with young children
4. Family with adolescent children
5. Launching children into the adult world.
6. The family in later life


What does Between families: the unattached young adult the first stage of family life entale?

As people postpone marriage, this stage will likely lengthen.


What does Joining together: the newly married couple the second stage in family life entale?

This “honeymoon” phase is characterized by high levels of satisfaction.


What does Family with young children the third stage in family life entale?

Birth of the first child brings a major transition and potential stress, especially for mothers.
The key to reducing stress during this transition is having realistic expectations.


What does Family with adolescent children the fourth stage in family life entale?

Adolescence is rated as the most difficult stage of parenting, and marital satisfaction is at its lowest point.
Conflict is especially likely between teens (both males and females) and mothers.
In addition, many couples are also caring for their own aging parents. These double responsibilities spurred the term, the “sandwich generation”.


What does Launching children into the adult world.the fifth stage in family life entale?

Also called the “empty nest” phase, it was traditionally thought to create feelings of loss.
However, women’s roles extend beyond parenthood, and this is now generally associated with greater marital satisfaction.
Problems usually only occur when adult children return to “the nest”.


What does The family in later life the sixth stage of family life entale?

Marital satisfaction tends to climb in the postparental period when couples have more time to devote to one another.
This continues until a spouse’s health begins to decline and/or a spouse dies.