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Flashcards in The Nature of Personality Deck (61):
1

Define: Personality

an individual’s unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits”.

2

Define: Personality Trait

is “a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations”.

3

What are some command personality traits?

Honest
Moody
impulsive
friendly

4

Who stated there are five higher order traits that are known as the the Big Five?

Robert McCrae and Paul Costa

5

What are the five higher order traits that make up the Big Five?

1. Extraversion (or positive emotionality)
2. Neuroticism (or negative emotionality)
3. Openness to experience
4. Agreeableness
5. Conscientiousness

6

Psychodynamic theories include

a variety of theoretical models

7

Psychodynamic theories modules are derived from?

Sigmund Freud

8

The four well known psychodynamic theorists are?

Frued
Jung
Alder
Erikson

9

is Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory of personality is somewhat controversial?
True or False

True

10

What three main assumptions is Frued's theory based on?

1. Personality is governed by unconscious forces that we cannot control.
2. Childhood experiences play a significant role in determining adult personality.
3. Personality is shaped by the manner in which children cope with sexual urges.

11

What three structures does Frued believe divided up personality?

Id
Ego
Superego

12

Define: Ego

the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle”.

13

Define: Superego

the moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong”.

14

what three layers of awareness are the Id, ego, and superego distributed across?

Conscious
Preconscious
Unconscious

15

Define: Conscious

“material we are fully aware of at a particular time”.

16

Define: Preconscious

material just below the surface of awareness”.

17

Define: Unconscious

material well below the surface of conscious

18

Define Id

the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle”.
Unconscious

19

Occuring to Freud what is the cause of are behavior?

ongoing internal conflict among the id, ego, and superego.

20

When does Freud believe are adult personality is fully developed by?

Age five

21

The basic elements of adult personality result from, according to Freud?

the outcome of five psychosexual stages

22

What two layers did Jung's believed unconscious is comprised of?

The Personal unconscious
the Collective unconscious

23

What is collective unconscious?

which contains traces of memories, shared by the entire human race, inherited from our ancestors.
Contains archetypes

24

Define: Archetypes

emotionally charged images and thought forms that have universal meaning”.

25

Who was the first to first to describe
Introverted (inner-directed), and
Extroverted (outer-directed) personality types?

Jung's

26

What did Alder believe was the most important human drive?

Our drive for Superiority

27

Alder stated that we use _____ efforts to overcome imagined or real inferiorities by developing one’s abilities”.

Compensation

28

If we are unsuccessful we may develop an _______“exaggerated feelings of weakness and inadequacy”.

Inferiority Complex

29

Did Alder believe birth order could contribute to personality? True or False

True

30

For what reason have Psychodynamic theory have been criticized?

Poor testability
Inadequate evidence
Sexism

31

Define: Behaviorism

“is a theoretical orientation based on the premise that scientific psychology should study observable behavior”.

32

How do behavior theorists view personality?

“as a collection of response tendencies that are tied to various stimulus situations”.

33

What do they focus on?

Personality development, and how children’s response tendencies are shaped by classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning.

34

What is Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning?

is “a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus”

35

Skinner's Operant conditioning is?

a form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by their consequences”.
Using reinforcers and punishers

36

A Positive reinforcement occurs when?

a response is strengthened because it is followed by a pleasant stimulus”

37

A Negative reinforcemtn occurs when?

a response is strengthened because it is followed by the removal of an unpleasant stimulus”

38

Punishment occurs when?

a response is weakened because it is followed by an unpleasant stimulus”

39

Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory requires that we?

pay attention to others’ behavior,
understand the consequences that follow others’ behavior, and
store this information in memory.

40

Observational learning occurs when?

an organism’s responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models”

41

What personality trait did Bandura believe was one of the most important because it is tied to success in many endeavors and resistance to stress?

self-efficacy

42

Why has Behavioral Perspectives been criticized?

given too much credence to the presence of cognitive influences.
It relies too heavily on animal models.
Fragmented view of personality.

43

Define: Humanism

a theoretical orientation that emphasizes the unique qualities of humans, especially their free will and their potential for personal growth”.

44

The Humanistic Perspective is based on?

Humans have an innate drive toward personal growth.
Humans exercise free will over their actions.
Humans are largely rational beings driven by conscious, not unconscious, needs.

45

Projective Test are?

individuals respond to ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal aspects of their personalities.

46

The Two main type of personality test are?

Self-Report Inventories
The NEO Inventory,

47

Validity – “does not refers to the ability of the test to measure what it was designed to measure”. ue or False?

False

48

Reliability – “refers to the measurement consistency of the test”. True or False

True

49

provide information about where a score ranks in relation to other scores on the test”. are?

Norms

50

Define: Standardization

“uniform procedures used to administer and score the test.”

51

A Personality Test is?

a standardized measure of a sample of a person’s behavior”

52

Which of the following is not included in McCrae and Costa's five-factor model of personality?
A. Neuroticism
B. Extraversion
C. conscientiousness
D authoritarianism

D. Authoritarianism

53

You're feeling guilty after your third bowl of ie cream. You tell yourself it's all right because yesterday you skipped lunch. Which defense mechanism is at work?
A. Conceptualization
B. Displacement
C. Ratioalization
D. Identification

C. Ratioalization

54

According to Adler, _____ is a universal drive to adapt, improe oneself, and master life's challenges.
A. Compensation
B. striving for superiority
C. avoiding inferiority
D. social interest

B. Striving for superiority

55

The strengthening of a response tendency by virtue of the fact that the response leads to the removal of an unpleasant stimulus is
A. positive reinforcement.
B. Negative reinforcement
C. primary reinforcement
D. punishment

B. Negative reinforcement

56

Self-efficacy is
A. the ability to fulfill one's potential
B. One's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected otcomes.
C. A durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations.
D. A collection of beliefs about one's ature. unique qualities, and typical behavior.

B. One's belief about one's ability to perform behaviors that should lead to expected otcomes.

57

According to Rogers, disparity between one's self-concept and actual experience is referred to as
A. a delusional system
B. dissonance
C. conflict
D. incongruence

D. Incongruence

58

According to Maslow, which of the following is not characteristic of self-actualizing persons?
A. Accurate percepton of reality
B. being open and spontaneous
C. being unconfortable with solitude
D.. Sensitivity to others' needs

C. Being unconfortable with solitude

59

If identical twins exhibit more personality resemblance than fraternal twins, it's probably due mostly to
A. similar treatment from parents.
B. their greater genetic overlap
C. their strong identification with each other
D. other's expectations that they should be similar.

B. their greater genetic overlap

60

Research on terror management theory has shown that incresed mortality salience leads to all of the following except:
A. Increased striving for self-esteem
B. More stereotypic thinking about minonties
C. more aggressiv behavior toward people with opposing views
D. Reduced respect for cultural icons

D. Reduced respect for cultural icons

61

In psychological testing, consistency of results over repeated measurements refers to
A. standardization.
B. validity
C. statistical significance
D Reliability

D. Reliability