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Flashcards in Stress and its Effects Deck (34):

Define Stress

is “any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one’s well-being and thereby tax one’s coping abilities”.


We first make a _______ or initial evaluation of the relevance, level of threat, and degree of stress the event brings.

Primary Appraisal


If viewed as stressful, we make a _______ or an evaluation of our ability to cope.

Secondary Appraisal


Define Ambient Stress

refers to chronic negative conditions embedded in the environment.


What are the four major characteristics?

Stress is command, everyday event
Stress is subjective
Ambient stress
Stress in influenced by culture


What are the three basic categories for sources of stress?

Acute Stressor
Chronic Stressor
Anticipatory Stressor


Define: Acute Stressors

“threatening events that have a relatively short duration and a clear endpoint”.


Chronic Stressor are?

threatening events that have a relatively long duration and no readily apparent time limit”.


An “upcoming or future events that are perceived to be threatening”.
This stressor is unique to humans is an

Anticipatory Stressor


What three levels do stress responses occur at?

Emotional responses
Physiological responses
Behavioral responses


The three major negative emotional responses are?

Annoyance, anger, and rage
2. Apprehension, anxiety, and fear
3. Dejection, sadness, and grief


Some Positive Emotional responses can be?

Increase creativity, flexibility in problem-solving, and
Enhance immune system functioning, increase valuable social support, and promote proactive coping.


What is the inverted U Hypopesis?

the relationship between emotional arousal and task performance tend to resemble an inverted U, as increased arousal is associated with improved performance up to a point, after which higher arousal leads to poorer performance. The optimal level of arousal for a task depends on the complexity of the task. On complex tasks, a relatively low level of arousal tends to be optimal. On simple tasks, however, performance may peak at a much higher level of arousal.


Which responses is "“a physiological reaction to threat that mobilizes an organism for attacking (fight) or fleeing (flight) an enemy”.
It occurs in the autonomic nervous system?

The fight or flight responses


What are the two division of the Autonomic nervous system?

Sympathetic division
Parasympathetic division


What is Hans Seyle’s general adaptation syndrome ?

is a “model of the body’s stress response, consisting of three stages” (see Fig. 3.11).

1. Alarm phase – initial response to threat, fight-or-flight response engages.

2. Resistance phase – if threat continues, physiological changes stabilize, coping begins.

3. Exhaustion phase – if the threat continues too long, the body’s resources are depleted, leading to physical exhaustion and illness.


Which two brain-body pathways control are physiological responses?

1.The Catecholamine Pathway – hypothalamus activates sympathetic system; adrenal glands release catecholamines that mobilize the body for action.

2.The Corticosteroid Pathway – hypothalamus signals pituitary gland to secrete ACTH; adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids that increase energy


Bahavioral responses in stress usually reffer to?

Coping or active efforts to master, reduce or tolerate the demands created by stress


What are some coping responses?

trying to solve the problem by asking for help or find a solution

ignoring problem, indulging in alcohol, or excessive eating


What are some effect of stress?

Impaired task performance
Disruption of cognitive function
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Psychological disordrs and problem
Psychosomatic diseases (Physical illness)


Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Is?

“involves enduring psychological disturbance attributed to the experience of a major traumatic event”.
Symptoms include
Re-experiencing trauma via nightmares, flashbacks.
Emotional numbing, alienation, problems in social relations.
Elevated arousal, anxiety, and guilt.


What are some positive effects of stress

It can promote positive psychological change, or posttraumatic growth.
It can help satisfy a need for stimulation and challenge.
It can inoculate us against future stress.


What are some moderator variables that can reduce stress?

Social support


Can you reduce stress with self-control?

Yes, using Behavior modification – “is a systematic approach to changing behavior through the application of the principles of conditioning”.


Secondary appraisal refers to:
A. second thoughts about what to do in a stressful situation.
B. second thoughts about whether an event is genuinely threatening.
C. initial evaluation of an evernt's relevance threat, and stressfulness.
D. Evaluation of soping resources and options for dealing with a stressful event.

D. Evaluation of soping resources and options for dealing with a stressful event.


Don Just completed writing a 10-page report when he went to sae it, the computer crashed and he lost all his work. What type of stress is Don experiencing?
A. Frustration
B. conflict
C. Life change
D. pressure

A. Frustration


Betty is having a hard time deciding whether she should buy a coat. On the one hand, it is a name brand coat on sale for a great price. On th other hand, it is an ugly mold-green color. Betty is experiencing what type of conflict?
A. approach-approach
B. Avoidance-avoidance
C. approach-avoidance
D. Life change

C. Approach-avoiance


The optimal level of arousal for a task appears to depend in part on.
A. one's position on the optimism/pessimism scale
B. How much shysiological schange an evernt stimulates..
C. the complexity of the task at hand
D. How imminent a stressful event is.

C. the complexity of the task at hand


The fight-or-flight response is mediated by the
A. sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
B. sympathetic division of the endocrine system
C. Visceral division of the peripheral nervous system.
D. Parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system

A. sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system


Seye exposed lab animals to various stressors and found that
A. each type of stress caused a particular physiological response.
B. Each type of animal responded to stress differently
C. patterns of physiological arousal were similar regardless of the type of stress.
D. Patterns of physiological arousal were different, even when stressors were similar.

C. patterns of physiological arousal were similar regardless of the type of stress.


Salvador works as an art director at an advertising agency. His boss overloads him with responsibility but never gives him any credit for all his hard work. He feels worn dwn, disillusioned, and helpless at work. Salvador is probably experiencing:
A. an alarm reaction
B. burnout
C. Posttraumatic stress isorder
D. a psychosomatic disorder

B. Burnout


Stress can _____ t functioning of the immune system.
A. Simulate
B. destroy
C. suppress
D. Enhance

C. Suppress


Joan has a personal disposition marked by commitment, challenge, and control. She appears to be stress tolerant. This dispositonis referred to as:
A. Hardiness.
B. Optimism
D. cnscientiousnes

A. Hardiness


A system providing for symbolic reinforcers is called a(n)
A. Extinction system
B. token economy
C. endocrin
D. symbolic reinforcemtnt system

B. Token economy