Flashcards in Exam 4 Deck (88):
The medical model “proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a ______ ” and has become the main way of thinking about mental illness today.
the medical model has brought
much needed improvement in patient care
“involves distinguishing one illness from another”.
“refers to the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness”.
– “is a forecast about the probable course of an illness”.
What is the three Criteria of Abnormal Behavior ?
the behavior must be significantly different from what society deems acceptable
Define: Maladaptive behavior
the behavior interferes with the person’s ability to function.
Define: Personal distress
the behavior is troubling to the individual
The American Psychological Association (A.P.A.) uses the ______ to classify disorders
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (now in its fifth revision and referred to as the DSM-5)
DSM 5 provides?
Detailed information about various mental illnesses that allows clinicians to make more consistent diagnoses
The DSM-IV had ____ “axes” or components
Epidemiology is ?
“the study of the distribution of mental or physical disorders in a population
Prevalence “refers to
the percentage of the population that exhibits a disorder during a specified time period”.
The most common classes of Psychological Disorders are?
substance use, anxiety, and mood disorders
Define: Anxiety disorders
are a class of disorders marked by feelings of excessive apprehension and anxiety
A Generalized anxiety disorder is?
marked by a chronic, high level of anxiety that is not tied to any specific threat
Define: Phobic disorder
“is marked by a persistent and irrational fear of an object of situation that presents no realistic danger”.
A Panic disorder is?
rder “is characterized by recurrent attacks of overwhelming anxiety that usually occur suddenly and unexpectedly
What is Agoraphobia?
a fear of going out to public places
Agoraphobia may result from ?
severe panic disorder, in which people “hide” in their homes out of fear of the outside world
Define: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD
is marked by persistent, uncontrollable intrusions of unwanted thoughts (obsessions) and urges to engage in senseless rituals (compulsions)”.
Some Common obsessions include ?
fear of contamination, harming others, suicide, or sexual acts
highly ritualistic acts that temporarily reduce anxiety brought on by obsessions.
OCD disorders occur in approximately ____of the population
Most cases of OCD emerge before the age of?
Etiology of anxiety disorders are?
1. Biological factors
a. Inherited temperament
b. Anxiety sensitivity
2. Drugs that effect neurotransmitters
a. GABA (e.g., Valium)
3. Conditioning and learning
4. Excessive stress
The brain’s _________s, or “chemicals that carry signals from one neuron to another”, may underlie anxiety
Who adds we are “biologically prepared” to fear some things more than others?
Some people are more likely to experience anxiety disorders because?
1. Misinterpret harmless situations as threatening.
2. Focus excess attention on perceived threats.
3. Selectively recall information that seems threatening
Define: Somatoform disorders
disorders “are physical ailments that cannot be fully explained by organic conditions and are largely due to psychological factors”.
Define: Somatization disorder
is marked by a history of diverse physical complaints that appear to be psychological in origin
Somatization disrders It occurs mostly in _____.
Symptoms seem to be linked to _____
Define: Conversion disorder
“is characterized by a significant loss of physical function with no apparent organic basis, usually in a single organ system”.
Define: Hypochondriasis (or hypochondria
“is characterized by excessive preoccupation with health concerns and incessant worry about developing physical illnesses”.
People with hypochondria are convinced their symptoms are ____ and often become frustrated with the medical establishment
Etiology of somatoform disorder
1. Personality factors
a. (those who thrive on the attention that illness
2. Cognitive factors
a. focus excessive attention on bodily
sensations and amplify them into perceived
symptoms of distress
b. unrealistically high standards of “good health”.
3. The sick role
Define: Dissociative disorders
“are a class of disorders in which people lose contact with portions of their consciousness or memory, resulting in disruptions in their sense of identity”.
Define: Dissociative amnesia
is a sudden loss of memory for important personal information that is too extensive to be due to normal forgetting”.
Dissociative amnesia occurs?
After a single traumatic event or an extended period of severe trauma or stress.
Dissociative fugue is?
a disorder in which “people lose their memory for their sense of personal identity”.
People suffering from dissociative fugue often
wander away from home, do not know who they are, where they live, or who they know.
Define: Dissociative identity disorder (DID)
involves the coexistence in one person of two or more largely complete, and usually very different, personalities”.
Another name foe DID is?
multiple personality disorder”,
Etiology of dissociative disorders
Psychogenic amnesia and fugue caused by extreme stress
Dissociative identity disorder cause is unknown but may be from severe emotional trauma that occurs in childhood.
Define: Mood disorders
are a class of disorders marked by emotional disturbances that may spill over to disrupt physical, perceptual, social, and thought processes”.
Major depressive disorder is ?
one in which people “show persistent feelings of sadness and despair and a loss of interest in previous sources of pleasure”.
Major depression disorders Onset can occur at any time, but most cases occur before age?
_____ are twice as likely to be diagnosed with depression.
What is Bipolar disorder (once known as manic-depressive disorder) ?
is marked by the experience of both depressed and manic periods”.
“Manic” periods are characterized by
bouts of extreme exuberance and a feeling of invincibility.
_____ of people who complete suicide suffer from some type of psychological disorder.
Etiology of mood disorders
a. Concordance rates, or “the percentage of twin
pairs or other pairs of relatives that exhibit the
Neurochemical & neuroanatomical factors
a. low levels of Norepinephrine and Seratonin
b. reduced hippocampal volume.
a. Learned helplessness
b. pessimistic explanatory style”
c. people who ruminate about problems
d. negitive thinking
Ex. poor social skills
Who proposes that depression is caused by “learned helplessness”, in which people become passive and “give up” in times of difficulty?
Who also asserts that those who ruminate about problems put themselves at risk for depression?
Nolen-Hoeksema (1991, 2000)
Define: Schizophrenic disorders
are a class of disorders marked by disturbances in thought that spill over to affect perceptual, social, and emotional processes”.
General symptoms of schizophrenic disorder
Deterioration of adaptive behavior
Disturbed emotion (either “flat” affect or inappropriate emotions for a situation).
false beliefs that are maintained even though they clearly are out of touch with reality”.
Delusions of grandeur are
irrational beliefs that one is “extremely important or famous”.
Schizophrenic disorder Positive versus negative symptoms prosel says?
proposed by Andreasen (1990)
Only two subtypes
1. Schizophrenias with negative symptoms (behavioral deficits, such as flat affect).
2. Schizophrenias with positive symptoms (hallucinations, delusions, & bizarre behavior).
What are the three likeliest outcomes of individuals with schizophrenic disorder?
1. Patients with milder versions who experience a full recovery.
2. Patients who experience a partial recovery and who are in and out of treatment facilities.
3. Patients whose symptoms are persistent and severe, and who require permanent hospitalization.
Schizophrenia usually emerges during ?
adolescence or early adulthood.
Define: Eating disorders
are severe disturbances in eating behavior characterized by preoccupation with weight and unhealthy efforts to control weight”.
What are the three major types of eating disorders?
Anorexia nervosa is?
involves intense fear of gaining weight, disturbed body image, refusal to maintain normal weight, and dangerous measure to lose weight”.
Bulimia nervosa is?
involves habitually engaging in out-of-control overeating followed by unhealthy compensatory efforts, such as self-induced vomiting, fasting, abuse of laxatives and diuretics, and excessive exercise”.
Bulima patients maintain a mormal?
Define: Positive psychology
“is a social and intellectual movement within the discipline of psychology that focuses on human strengths and how people can flourish and be successful”.
What are the three legs on which positive sychology stands on?
Positive subjective experiences (good moods, happiness, and love).
Positive individual traits (character strengths and virtues).
Positive institutions (families, schools, & supportive work environments).
global, pervasive responses to experiences”.
Benefits of being in a good mood are?
Making people more agreeable.
Making people more helpful.
Making people better decision-makers.
Who found that participants who watched a funny film were better able to solve the “candle task?
) found that participants who watched a funny film were better able to solve the “candle task”
Positive moods can promote?
What effects mood?
Speed of thoughts
Variability of thought also affects mood.
are powerful, largely uncontrollable feelings, accompanied by physiological changes”.
Define: Positive emotions
consist of pleasant responses to events that promote connections with others, including subjective states like happiness, joy, euphoria, gratitude, or contentment”.
Define: Negative emotions
consist of unpleasant responses to potential threats or dangers, including subjective states like sadness, disgust, anger, guilt, and fear”.
Why historically have negitive emotions been study more than positive ones?
They are of evolutionary significance.
They are part of the “fight-or-flight” response.
There are so many of them.
Who developed the broaden-and-build model of positive emotions to explain how they benefit us?
the broaden-and-build model proposes
than positive emotions broaden people’s outlooks and then builds on subsequent learning in order to develop future emotional and intellectual resources”.
The undoing hypothesis says that?
which posits that “positive emotions aid the mind and the body by recovering a sense of balance and flexibility following an episode experiencing negative emotion”.
the state of being wherein a person becomes fully involved and engage in the present time by some interesting, challenging, and intrinsically rewarding activity”.
When someone is in flow?
Less self-aware and lose all track of time.
Focus all their energies and attention on an activity where skill and challenge are in balance.
According to Csikszentmihalyi, we find flow when?
engaged in activities that have the ideal balance of challenge and skill level
Can everyone experience flow?
Yes but not everyone does
Mindfulness – refers “to
a cultivated perspective wherein people are sensitive to context and focused on the present”.
When mindful we?
Resist the impulse to control uncertainty.
Are less prone to evaluate ourselves.
Are in a more flexible state of mind.