Flashcards in Exam 2: AntiHistamines (+separate lecture), Antifungals, and AntiVirals Deck (41):
What are the two cells that produce Histamine?
Basophils and Mast Cells
Histamine- General Dilation = H_ receptor...Facial Dilation = H__ receptor
Gen= H1... facial H2
Respiratory tract = H__ receptors, ________ papillary smooth muscle.
For the most part the GI tract is H__ receptors, except for the Illium = H__.
Glandular System = H__ receptors
What are the Lewis triple responses? They are mediated by H__ receptors.
Redness, Flare, Swelling... H1
Dermal, mostly by H__.
Which type of antihistamine blocker? Clinical Uses: Allergic rhinitis
Which type of anti histamine blocker? CNS
Which histamine blocker? Mechanism of action = competitive blockage of H__ receptors (GI tract), Reduces intracellular concentration of cAMP, Protein kinase (in parietal cells) that drives the H+/K+-ATPase pump is shut down, Inhibits basal and nocturnal gastric acid secretion (evoked by histamine)
Whichi Receptor blocker?Clinical uses:
Adverse Effects of AntiHistamines (3)
Drowsiness, xerostomia, and dry mucous membranes
Benedryl is an ______amine.
_______ AND ______ need to be in the dental office emergency kit, it helps with anaphylaxis (along with Epi).
Zyrtec's main side effect
_______ and ______ are non drowsy anti-histamines.
Claritin and Allegra
What happens if we add H1 and H2 blockers together?
all CARDIOVASCULAR effects of histamine are blocked!
What is an example of an H2 blocker?
H__ blockers dont cure the whole problem of peptic ulcers, because they don't kill H Pylori, but they DO stop acid production.
Are the H2 side effects a big deal?
No, minor-headache, coinfusion, GYNACOMASTIA, impotense
Which H2 blocker is the safest? Which has the most adverse effects?
safe=ranitidine (Zantec), adverse=ci-met-idine (Tagamet)
What is the Mast cell stabilizing drug?
Angular Cheilitis- what type of infection?
______ anti-fungals = chronic, extensive mucocutaneous candidiasis.....vs....________ anti-fungals = local candidiasis
Which anti-fungal delivery system is preferred? Along those lines---______ = sweetened vaginal preps with cocoa butter • Caution in patients with diabetes(contain sugar)......_______ = lozenge-type delivery
What is the most popular Anti-fungal drug? What's its mech?
NY-Statin (Mycostatin)...binds to Sterols in fungal cell wall
Is there good or poor complacence for anti-fungals?
What anti-fungal can we use when NYStatin is not effective?
______ anti-fungals are SYSTEMIC anti-fungals. TRY TO AVOID for these 3 reasons!
Azole...Resistance, Interactions, Hepatotoxic
What is a popular Parenteral anti-fungal, given to HIV patients?
For angular cheilitits, consider adding a ______ to the anti-fungal. For example _______ and _______.
steroid...NyStatin and TriAmCinOlone (you've been on that one!)
WHEN IS THE OPTIMAL TIME TO TAKE AN ANTIVIRAL?
Prodromal stage-very FIRST signs of upcoming outbreak!
A Primary viral infection is ________ whereas ______ is a recurrent infection.
Viral infection treatment is primarily ________.
Viral lesions are highly ________ and can last for about ___ days.
Drug considerations for Anti-Viral: ________ are ineffective for treatment of viral herpes lesions.....Systemic ________ are CONTRAINDICATED for use during viral illnesses
Antibiotics....corticosteroids (VIRUS-NO, FUNGUS-YES)
_______, ______, ______ can all initiate viral lesions
Sunlight, stress, trauma can all initiate lesions
All drugs for recurrent Herpes Simplex outbreaks end in "_____"
What Anti-Viral am I? Inhibits viral DNA polymerase preferentially, inhibiting viral replication....Drug is incorporated into viral DNA...Available systemically and topically....Immunocompromised patients....Systemic: recurrent mucosal and cutaneous herpes simplex infections.... Topical: herpes labialis, mucocutaneous infections
What are the 4 dose forms of Acyclovir?
Oral, Cream, Suspension, Injection