Exam 2: AntiHistamines (+separate lecture), Antifungals, and AntiVirals Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Exam 2: AntiHistamines (+separate lecture), Antifungals, and AntiVirals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2: AntiHistamines (+separate lecture), Antifungals, and AntiVirals Deck (41):
1

What are the two cells that produce Histamine?

Basophils and Mast Cells

2

Histamine- General Dilation = H_ receptor...Facial Dilation = H__ receptor

Gen= H1... facial H2

3

Respiratory tract = H__ receptors, ________ papillary smooth muscle.

H1...constricts

4

For the most part the GI tract is H__ receptors, except for the Illium = H__.

H2....illium=H1

5

Glandular System = H__ receptors

H1

6

What are the Lewis triple responses? They are mediated by H__ receptors.

Redness, Flare, Swelling... H1

7

Dermal, mostly by H__.

H1

8

Which type of antihistamine blocker? Clinical Uses: Allergic rhinitis

H1

9

Which type of anti histamine blocker? CNS

H1

10

Which histamine blocker? Mechanism of action = competitive blockage of H__ receptors (GI tract), Reduces intracellular concentration of cAMP, Protein kinase (in parietal cells) that drives the H+/K+-ATPase pump is shut down, Inhibits basal and nocturnal gastric acid secretion (evoked by histamine)

H2

11

Whichi Receptor blocker?Clinical uses:

H2

12

Adverse Effects of AntiHistamines (3)

Drowsiness, xerostomia, and dry mucous membranes

13

Benedryl is an ______amine.

EthanolAmine

14

_______ AND ______ need to be in the dental office emergency kit, it helps with anaphylaxis (along with Epi).

Benadryl...Chlor-TriMetOn

15

Zyrtec's main side effect

Sedation

16

_______ and ______ are non drowsy anti-histamines.

Claritin and Allegra

17

What happens if we add H1 and H2 blockers together?

all CARDIOVASCULAR effects of histamine are blocked!

18

What is an example of an H2 blocker?

Zantac

19

H__ blockers dont cure the whole problem of peptic ulcers, because they don't kill H Pylori, but they DO stop acid production.

H2..Zantac

20

Are the H2 side effects a big deal?

No, minor-headache, coinfusion, GYNACOMASTIA, impotense

21

Which H2 blocker is the safest? Which has the most adverse effects?

safe=ranitidine (Zantec), adverse=ci-met-idine (Tagamet)

22

What is the Mast cell stabilizing drug?

cro-mo-lyn (Gastrocrom)

23

Angular Cheilitis- what type of infection?

fungal

24

______ anti-fungals = chronic, extensive mucocutaneous candidiasis.....vs....________ anti-fungals = local candidiasis

systemic...topical

25

Which anti-fungal delivery system is preferred? Along those lines---______ = sweetened vaginal preps with cocoa butter • Caution in patients with diabetes(contain sugar)......_______ = lozenge-type delivery

Topical.....Troches.....Pastilles

26

What is the most popular Anti-fungal drug? What's its mech?

NY-Statin (Mycostatin)...binds to Sterols in fungal cell wall

27

Is there good or poor complacence for anti-fungals?

poor

28

What anti-fungal can we use when NYStatin is not effective?

Clot-Rim-Az-ole

29

______ anti-fungals are SYSTEMIC anti-fungals. TRY TO AVOID for these 3 reasons!

Azole...Resistance, Interactions, Hepatotoxic

30

What is a popular Parenteral anti-fungal, given to HIV patients?

AMPHO-tericin

31

For angular cheilitits, consider adding a ______ to the anti-fungal. For example _______ and _______.

steroid...NyStatin and TriAmCinOlone (you've been on that one!)

32

WHEN IS THE OPTIMAL TIME TO TAKE AN ANTIVIRAL?

Prodromal stage-very FIRST signs of upcoming outbreak!

33

A Primary viral infection is ________ whereas ______ is a recurrent infection.

Primary-gingivostomatitis...herpes labialis

34

Viral infection treatment is primarily ________.

pallative

35

Viral lesions are highly ________ and can last for about ___ days.

contagious....10 days

36

Drug considerations for Anti-Viral: ________ are ineffective for treatment of viral herpes lesions.....Systemic ________ are CONTRAINDICATED for use during viral illnesses

Antibiotics....corticosteroids (VIRUS-NO, FUNGUS-YES)

37

_______, ______, ______ can all initiate viral lesions

Sunlight, stress, trauma can all initiate lesions

38

All drugs for recurrent Herpes Simplex outbreaks end in "_____"

"vir"

39

What Anti-Viral am I? Inhibits viral DNA polymerase preferentially, inhibiting viral replication....Drug is incorporated into viral DNA...Available systemically and topically....Immunocompromised patients....Systemic: recurrent mucosal and cutaneous herpes simplex infections.... Topical: herpes labialis, mucocutaneous infections

Acyclovir

40

What are the 4 dose forms of Acyclovir?

Oral, Cream, Suspension, Injection

41

What are the 2 main side effects of Anti-Virals?

Bone marrow suppression and therefore blood dyscrasias