Exam 3: PreMedication Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3: PreMedication Deck (56)
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1

Amoxicillin- __ gm orally ___ hour(s) before procedure.

2 gm....1 hour

2

Ampicillin- ___ gm IM or IV within ___ min before procedure.

2 gm IM or IV....30 min

3

Clindamycin- ____ mg orally __ hour(s) before procedure.

600 mg...1 hour

4

Cephalexin- ___ gm orally __ hour(s) before procedure.

2 gm...1 hour

5

Azithromycin/Clarithromycin- ___ mg orally __ hour(s) before procedure.

500mg...1 hour

6

Clindamycin ___ mg IV within ___ min before procedure.

600 mg... 30 min

7

Cefazolin ____ gm IM or IV within ___ min before procedure.

1 gm...30 min

8

Ceftriaxone ___ gm IM or IV within ___ min before procedure.

1 gm...30 min

9

No _________ supports that antibiotic prophylaxis defends against IE or prosthetic joint infection.

scientific evidence

10

Antibiotic Prophylaxis for patients at risk for
_______ endocarditis when undergoing invasive dental procedures

INFECTIVE

11

Infectious Endocarditis: 400 fold increase in patients with ________ and ________

prosthetic valves and previous history of endocarditis

12

________ from periodontal pathogens initiate the clotting
cascade...*why IE is also treated with ________

Endotoxins....anticoagulants

13

What are the BIG FOUR? The FINAL FOUR? The guidelines for prophylactic antibiotic prescriptions..

1.Prosthetic Cardiac Valve 2. Previous history of infective endocarditis 3. Congentical Heart Disease (up to 6 mo post procedure) (with residual defects) 4. Cardiac Transplantation

14

Warning a ______ shunt which is a CHD is NOT THE SAME as a ArterioVenous Shunt for dialysis.

Cardiac Shunt (atrio-ventricular)

15

Bateremia occurs with in ______ of a dental procedure!

5 minutes

16

Bacteremia study: did prophylactic antibiotics help bacteremia?

Yes 56% bacteremia vs 79% bacteremia w/o...however by 20 min they are mostly gone and 0% gone with pre procedure drugs

17

Premedication with amoxicillin before EXT significantly ______ positive cultures at 1.5, 5 and 20 minutes

reduced!

18

After a big study: there should be a greater focus on avoidance of _______ in patients at risk for distant site infection in general and infective endocarditis in particular..

dental disease

19

Infection is _______ most common cause of prosthetic joint failure

second (obesity is #1)

20

Infection of a prosthetic joint can be from failure to give antimicrobial prophylaxis during ______.

the actual surgery (S. Aureus)

21

_______ is risk factor for hematogenous prosthetic joint infection....Especially with _______

Bacteremia....Staphylococcus aureus

22

______ are rarely implicated in bacteremia following dental procedures

Staph Aureus

23

_________ constitute most of facultative oral flora

Viridans-group Streptococci

24

Strep Virdans only account for ___% of all hematogenous prosthetic joint infections!

2%

25

After dental procedures, bacteria levels are at much _______ than that needed for hematogenous seeding on prostheses (from animal studies)

lower levels

26

Cumulative exposure to transient bacteremia through daily activities is ________ than following a single exposure during a dental procedure.

several times higher

27

Dental Procedures caused ____% of primary knee arthroplasties.... ___% of primary hip arthroplasties

0.2%....6%

28

The Mayo Clinic study: Neither ______ nor ______ dental procedures were associated with an increased risk of prosthetic knee or hip infection.

low-risk nor high-risk

29

BOOM: Good oral hygiene and prevention of dental disease may potentially decrease frequency of _______ from daily activities

bacteremia

30

Antibiotic premedication before dental treatment was not associated with _______.

Lower Risk