Exam 4: Opioid Analgesics-Part 1 Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Exam 4: Opioid Analgesics-Part 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 4: Opioid Analgesics-Part 1 Deck (75)
Loading flashcards...
1

Opiates are for _______ to ______ dental pain that cannot be managed effectively with NSAIDS.

Moderate to severe

2

What is the older term derived from Greek word meaning “stupor”?

Narcotics

3

What term is used to describe substances from the white liquid extract derived from the seeds of poppy plant? Alkaloids found in opium...

Opiates

4

What is the current/correct term used to describe opiates, their antagonists, and the receptors stimulated by opioid drugs?

Opioids

5

What are the 4 mechanisms of action for opioid theraputics?

Agonists, Partial Agonists, Mixed (agoinists + antagoinists) and antagoinists

6

Opioids bind to receptors in both _____ and spinal cord...Produce altered perception of _____ reaction...Opioid receptors that mediate specific pharmacologic effects and adverse reactions are stimulated to varying ______ by individual opioids.

CNS...pain....degrees

7

The Analgesic Effect: Produced by _______ stimulation due to activation of a pain-modulating circuit which projects via the _____ to the spinal cord ______ horn.

midbrain...medulla..dorsal

8

Where is the highest concentration of endogenous opioid?

the DESCENDING pain-modulating circuit

9

What circuit is activated by stress (like running/birth)?

the DESCENDING pain-modulating circuit

10

Opiates produce analgesia by direct action on the _____.

CNS

11

The Pain suppression center involves ________ as neurotransmitter and it is partially _______-mediated (endogenous opioids)

serotonin...enkephalin

12

What are the 3 areas of the CNS where all the Analgesia action takes place?

1.periaquaductal grey matter (MIDBRAIN)....2.nucleus raphe magnus (MEDULLA)....3.pain inhibitory neurons (DORSAL horns of the spinal cord)

13

Projections from the Periaqueductal Gray Matter (PAG) and RVM (rostroventral medulla) are ________ and are highly sensitive to ________.

serotonergic...morphine

14

Projections from the dorsolateral pons are _________...Application of NE to spinal cord blocks noxious stimuli in ______ horn.

noradrenergic....dorsal

15

What are the 3 groups of endogenous opioids?

1.Endorphins 2.Enkephalins 3.Dynorphins

16

What are the 3 different receptors that opioids work on? What type of signal transduction?

Mu, delta, and kappa....G protein

17

Term “_______” = used synonymously with endogenous opioid peptides

endorphins

18

Endorphins/endogenous opioid peptides are produced by the _______ gland and _________.

pituitary gland and the hypothalamus

19

You can find endorphins/endogenous opioid peptides? mainly in ______ system and ______ areas
associated with pain reception and certain areas of the _____

limbic...brainstem...spinal cord

20

The Endogenous Opioid Peptides: β-Endorphin = expressed in cells in the _______ nucleus of the _______ and in the _______....acts via ____: influences appetite, sexual behavior

arcuate...hypothalamus...brainstem..mu

21

Enkephalin = widely distributed throughout the brain
– acts via ____ and _____

mu and delta

22

Dynorphin = found in the spinal cord and in many parts of the brain, including the hypothalamus
– acts via ______

kappa

23

More on ENDORPHINS: endogenous morphine is produced from _______ molecules (no I aint about to memorize those)

precursor

24

Which group of endogenous opioid is found in the gut (pancreatic islet cells), sympathetic nervous system, adrenal medullary chromaffin cells, CNS?

Endorphins

25

More on ENDORPHINS: B-endorphin distributed in _____

brain

26

Which group of endogenous opioid is involved in blood pressure regulation, temperature regulation and food intake?

Endorphins

27

More on ENDORPHINS: they act via the ____ receptor to produce the opiate effects.

mu

28

Since the naturally occurring endorphins act via mu receptors in the GI tract, what is a MAJOR side effect when you prescribe opioids? What would you recommend to the Pt along with your Rx?

CONSITPATION!!! A stool softener like Colace

29

More on ENKEPHALINS: they are _________ synthesized and isolated from brain.

pentapeptides

30

More on ENKEPHALINS: they mimic opiate activity = and are ______ analgesics

weak