Flashcards in Exam 1: PharmacoDynamics Deck (65)
_________ is the study of the biochemical and physiologic actions of drugs, and their mechanisms of drug action at the cell level and sub-cell level...AKA-What the drug does to the body
Drugs do not impart NEW functions: they either: Produce the ____ action as the body’s own chemicals OR _____ the action of the body’s own chemicals
Action at _____ level is an interaction and binding of the drug to receptor macromolecules.
Receptors may be: metabolic or regulatory _______; proteins or ________ associated with transport mechanism; or structural and functional components of the cell membrane or _______.
A single cell may have _______ of receptor sites.
______ binding and _____ binding are the most common methods for a drug to bind to a receptor.
The AFFINITY of a drug for a particular receptor and the type of binding is intimately related to the drug’s _______.
In a typical drug interaction with a protein/glycoprotein receptor, Drug binding occurs at ______ (amino acid residues) on protein structure. (INTERESTING!)
In a typical drug interaction with a protein/glycoprotein receptor, binding to one or more amino acid residues causes a ________ change in the protein molecule.
In a typical drug interaction with a protein/glycoprotein receptor, this results in a modification of the _______ structure to bring other amino acid residues closer to the drug = called an “______ fit”.
Induced fit is also known as the "________" mechanism of binding.
"lock and key"
For drugs that bind within the cell: Receptor protein may be a structural or enzymatic component of the cell membrane = _____ of the cell membrane.
Proteins that ______ the cell membrane act as drug receptors.
The term “______” refers to the molecules that bind to the receptor protein or receptor glycoprotein.
What are the 4 possible types of ligands?
1. hormones 2. neurotransmitters 3.growth factors 4.drug molecules
When a ligand binds to a SPECIFIC area of the receptor protein on the outer surface of the cell, or within the cell membrane, a ________ occurs in the receptor-protein molecule which is transmitted to the inner surface of the cell membrane.
What are the 4 well known mechanisms by which receptors induce a response? you got this dawg
1.Ligand-Gated Ion Channels 2.G-Proteins 3.Intracellular Receptors 4.tyrosine kinase receptors
Ligand-gated ion channels are found in ______ tissues like nerves in the CNS, neuromuscular junctions, and autonomic ganglia.
For Ion Channel Receptors: The ligand binding occurs directly to ______ at channel site.
For Ion Channel Receptors: the receptors are located on ______-gated channels and ______-gated channels.
For Ion Channel Receptors: Binding causes the channel to ______, allowing for the influx of ions.
For Ion Channel Receptors: KEY POINT--->Binding increases cell membrane permeability to ______ and _______ = determines ________ or hyperpolarization of nerve = affects nerve _____.
sodium & potassium..depolarization...firing
In signal transduction: ligand binding causes a series of events which generate a ______ messenger.
Second messengers pass the message from the inside of the cell to the effector ______ (target site of action)
Some _______ receptors and _________ receptors (e.g. in the autonomic nervous system) depend on G proteins to mediate their actions on cells
What are 2 examples of receptors that generate second messengers?
1.Muscarinic Cholinergic Receptors (ACh) 2.Adrenergic Receptors (epi/norepi)
What are the 3 effectors activated in a G-Protein pathway?
1.Adenylyl Cyclase 2.Phospholipase C 3.A membrane channel
If the effector is adenylyl cyclase: the cell’s response is the generation of ______ (____).
cyclic AMP (cAMP)
If the effector is phospholipase C: the cell's response is _______ of proteins.
phosphorylation of proteins