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Flashcards in Exam 1: PharmacoKinetics Deck (84):
1

_________ is the study of how a drug enters the body, circulates within the body, is changed by the body, and leaves the body.

Pharmacokinetics

2

What are the 4 major steps of drug movement in the body?

1.Absorption 2.Distribution 3.Metabolism 4.Excretion

3

Determing a drugs ability to exert an effect: The ______ of drug that is able to pass through a cell membrane.... The ____ at which a drug moves through the body

amount...rate

4

________ = the more, the easier that the drug will cross

Lipid Solubility

5

Degree of ionization (charge) = charged molecules cannot cross (must use _____/_____).

pores/channels

6

______ sized molecules cross more easily.

Smaller

7

_____ of the drug molecule = molecules can “contort” to fit through the membrane

Shape

8

_______ = small molecules that are water- soluble pass through membrane pores by the bulk flow of water

Filtration

9

_______ transport = large, ionized water-soluble drugs require a more complex mechanism than simple diffusion

Specialized

10

________ = drug forms a complex with a component of cell membrane on one side; complex is carried through membrane; drug is released on inside

Facilitated diffusion

11

_______ are engulfed by cell membrane and are released unchanged in cytoplasm (endocytosis)

vitamins!

12

Movement of glucose across cell membranes is _______ by insulin

facilitated

13

__________ = movement of drug molecules across biologic membranes against both a concentration and an electrochemical gradient...Requires _____

Active transport....ATP

14

What are the 3 influences on the RATE a drug is moved across the membrane?

1.Physiochemical factors (size, charge, etc) 2.Solubility 3.Route of administration

15

_______ = drugs given by this route are placed directly into the gastrointestinal tract...THERE ARE ONLY 2 WAYS: ______ & ______

Enteral....Oral & Rectal

16

________= administration that bypasses the gastrointestinal tract and includes various injection routes, inhalation and topical drug administration.

Par-enteral

17

Which route of drug administration is the cheapest, easiest, and most conveneient?

Enteral-Oral route

18

Liquid pills are absorbed more ______ then regular tablets.

quickly

19

A down side to recall route drugs are poorly or irregularly _______ from rectum. Poor patient _______, so its mainly used on ______.

absorbed...compliance...babies

20

Inhalation is a _____ way to access the circulation and it can be both ______ and systemic.

rapid...local

21

What is the MOST RAPID route for drug response, and it produces a _______ response.

IntraVenous... Predictable

22

IntraMuscular route allows for a _______ effect of the drug (absorbed more slowly)

sustained

23

Topical Route: can be either _____ or ______ in effect, depending on dose.

local or systemic

24

What is the newest route of drug administration in dentistry?

subgingival! (in pocket)

25

What is the official title for the route we use to give a IA block?

Subcutaneous

26

In a sublingual route the drug is _____ absorbed.

rapidly

27

What is the most concentrated drug delivery vehicle?

Transdermal (pouch)

28

The _______ route is an injection of solutions into the spinal sub-arachnoid space?

IntraTheCal

29

The _______ route places fluid into the peritoneal cavity for exchange of substances.

IntraPeritoneal Route (form of dialysis)

30

Drug _______ is the movement of the drug from its site of administration into the plasma.

absorption

31

Many drugs are weak ________ (either weak acids or weak bases)

elecrtolyes

32

As weak electrolytes, drugs can exist in either ionized or non-ionized state, depending on the ______ of the environment, the ________ form can diffuse across membranes.

pH...Non-ionized

33

A weak acid in an ______ environment = lipid soluble

acidic

34

A weak acid in a ______ environment = water soluble (dissociates)

basic

35

A weak base in ______ environment = water soluble (dissociates)

acidic

36

Weak base in a _____ environment = lipid soluble

basic

37

Aspirin is a weak _____; pKa for aspirin = 4.4....Therefore, In acid environment of stomach, aspirin dissociates to 1000 uncharged molecules (lipid soluble) to 1 charged molecule (polar, water soluble) = acid gets absorbed across wall of stomach (membrane) into plasma because most of drug is in lipid soluble form

acid...

38

Aspirin's story: However, once in the plasma (pH = 7.4), ratio of _______ aspirin molecules changes: 1000 charged (polar, water soluble) to 1 uncharged (lipid soluble) = aspirin cannot pass back through blood vessel wall membrane into stomach

dissociated

39

_______ is the fraction of the administered drug that becomes available in the plasma...only _____ administration gives 100% of this.

Bioavailability...IV

40

FDA mandates that generics must have ___% of the bioavailability of the parent compound.

90%

41

_________ = drug movement from the site of absorption to the site of action

drug distribution

42

What are the two ways drug distribution occurs in the blood?

1.bound to plasma proteins 2. free (unbound)

43

Of the 2 ways a drug can be distributed, only the ______ form can pass across cell membranes.

free

44

As free drug leaves the plasma, the bound drug becomes “unbound” therefore the “_____” of bound:unbound drug _________ in the blood.

"ratio" ....stays the same!!!

45

The bound form of a drug has _____ on the body.

NO EFFECT

46

The BLOOD BRIAIN BARRIER: drugs that can cross this barrier are ______-soluble, very _____ molecular weight/size, and exert effects on the central nervous system (CNS).

lipid....small

47

Placenta = most drugs cross ______; ______- soluble drugs cross most easily

easily...lipid

48

If a drug has a high binding affinity for plasma proteins: remain in the blood ______!

longer

49

Hmmm...Cross reactions maybe?!?! When 2 or more drugs are competing for the same plasma protein binding sites for transport through the body, the drug with the highest ________ will become bound to plasma proteins..Other drug(s) will remain unbound or “free” to exert their effects by reacting with target tissue

binding affinity

50

Most of the drugs are cleared/removed from the body in __ to ___ half-lives.

4 to 5 half lives

51

It takes approximately __ to __ half-lives for a drug to build up to a steady state level (level amount) in the body.

4 to 5

52

_______ is the movement of the drug from the site of action to nonspecific sites of action...if it occurs the drug's action will be _______.

Redistribution...terminated

53

An "induction" agent that helps knock your ass out before surgery is an example of _______ because it's action is diminished after it moves from the CNS to muscle.

redistribution

54

Drug metabolism is also known as _________.

Biotransformation

55

Drug metabolism/biotransformation works by converting a drug from _____ soluble to ______ soluble metabolites that can be excreted by the kidneys.

lipid...water

56

Which organ is the most common drug metabolizer? What are its enzymes called?

the LIVER!...cytochrome P450 system)

57

Phase I of biotransformation: occurs in the _____ where the drug molecule is modified through _______, _______, or _______.

oxidation, reduction, or hydrolysis

58

In Phase II of biotransformation the drug molecule is modified by conjugation to a large _____ endogenous molecule. Phase II metabolites are pharmacologically _____.

polar...inactive

59

Since metabolism breaks down or “inactivates” drugs, then increasing the rate of metabolism would ________ the action of the drug

decrease

60

If Drug A induces the metabolism of Drug B, then the action of Drug B would be _______.

reduced

61

If we “_____” cytochrome P450 liver enzymes, we decrease the rate of metabolism.

"inhibit"

62

Since metabolism breaks down or “inactivates” drugs, then _________ the rate of metabolism would _______ the action of the drug.

decreasing....increase

63

If Drug A inhibits the metabolism of Drug B, then the action of Drug B would be ________.

increased

64

The most common mechanism of biotransformation is ______ to inactive.

active

65

Mechanism of biotransformation: What is the nickname for drugs that go from inactive to active?

"prodrugs"-the inactive parent drug is converted to an active drug after metabolism

66

Mechanism of biotransformation: Active parent drug is converted to a second active drug (metabolite is active). this is called ______ to ______.

active to active

67

Liver function declines with age, so it often requires a _____ modification.

dose

68

The first pass effect is only for drugs that are administered ______.

orally

69

Drugs that are given ________ bypass the first pass effect.

parenterally

70

What is the principle organ of drug excretion/elimination out of the body?

the kidney

71

Did you know: Salivary drug concentration mimics ______ concentration!

blood plasma

72

If a drug is FAT SOLUBLE when it reaches the kidneys, it will be _______ by the kidneys and be placed back into the blood stream.

reabsorbed

73

EVERYONE screws this up: _______ drug elimination: The amount of drug eliminated is dependent upon the amount of drug in the plasma at any given time.

First Order Drug Elimination

74

IN First Order Drug Elimination: A constant _______ of the drug is eliminated per unit time.

FRACTION (5%ofdrug/min) ((where as zero order is 5mg/min))

75

________ half-life = rapid decline in plasma drug concentration as 50% of drug distributed throughout the body

Distribution

76

_______ half-life = time required to excrete 50% of drug from the system

Elimination

77

_______ drug elimination: A given amount of drug is eliminated per unit time

ZERO order drug elimination

78

In Zero Order Drug elimination a _______ amount of drug is eliminated per unit time.

GIVEN

79

An example of Zero Order Drug Elimination is Alcohol, because it is eliminated at a rate of 1 gram per hour, the rate is ______.

constant!

80

_______ concentration: Following administration of MULTIPLE therapeutic dosages of a drug at REGULAR time intervals, a plateau level of drug accumulates.

Steady-State

81

A Steady-State concentration ______ represents a rate of drug administration that is EQUAL to the rate of drug elimination.

plateau

82

Stready State Accumulation: If the drug is taken too _____ (too ______) before the preceding dose is eliminated completely, the next dose will ADD to the residual amount of drug still remaining in the body. EVENTUALLY The rate of intake _______ the rate of elimination!!

soon...frequently..exceeds

83

At a ______ dosing frequency, the drug does not accumulate and a steady state or equilibrium is eventually reached.

regular

84

The higher the drug concentration, the greater is the amount ________ per unit time

eliminated