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Flashcards in Exam 5-Stimulants Deck (56):
1

What are the two main systems that are indicated for the use of stimulants?

CNS and respiratory systems...stimulants are primarily used as an antidote for depression in these systems..."ANALEPTIC"

2

Which class of stimulants are primarily used for asthma to reverse respiratory depression (bronchodilators)?

Xanthenes

3

Which class of stimulants are primarily for hyperkinetic children?

Centrally acting sympatho-mimetics (amphetamine)

4

Which class of stimulant is primarily used for diagnostic purposes?

convulsants

5

What are the three examples of Xanthenes? (thank the lord Jesus for these!)

aminophylline, theophylline, and caffeine

6

I love this shit- 12 oz can of Coke = ____ mg caffeine

50 mg

7

I love this shit- 1 cup coffee = ___ mg caffeine

85 mg

8

I love this shit- 1 cup tea = ___ mg caffeine + _______

50 mg caffeine + theophylline!

9

___-____ mg of caffeine or theophylline is needed to increase cortical activity (1 to 4 cups of coffee) (while the OTC pill forms have ____-____ mg of caffeine

50-200 mg...100-200 mg

10

Stimulant potency....Cerebral cortex = ___-___ mg (small dose produces effect = more potent)...Brain stem = >___ mg (greater dose required)...Spinal cord = _____ mg (highest dose required) = can lead to convulsions, SHAKINESS

50-200 mg....250 mg...1000 mg

11

Pharm effects of stimulants-Blood vessel _____...especially _____ and ______ blood vessels

dilation...coronary and peripheral

12

Pharm effects of stimulants- _____ receptor effect

beta-2

13

Caffeine ________ peripheral resistance and can therefore cause _____tension, but guess what _______ more potent than caffeine!! WHAA

decreases...hypotension... theophylline

14

HMMMMM while Caffeine dilates the peripheral and coronary vessels, it CONSTRICTS _______ blood vessels which is great for treating a _______!!

cerebral...headache!!!

15

Xanthenes also cause cardiac muscle stimulation via _____ receptors.. the overall effect is ______ cardiac output

beta 1...increased

16

Did you know? theophylline = inhibits _____ which increases perfusion

ADH

17

GOOD TO KNOW! Caffeine will cause arrhythmias in someone who is at risk for them, but does not produce them in a normal heart *

arrhythmias

18

Xanthene Pharm Effects- the Beta-2 effect. these drugs will _______ smooth muscle and will therefore broncho_______

relax...bronchoDilate

19

Xanthene Pharm Effects-Which xanthene is such a potent bronchodilator tha it is used to treat asthma?

Theophylline

20

Xanthene Pharm Effects- the ONLY instance where caffeine was more influential then theophylline is ______ contraction. This can lead to _____ in the neck.

skeletal muscle contraction..tension

21

Xanthene Pharm Effects- _______ by increasing GFR, inhibiting ADH and increasing perfusion to kidney

Diuresis

22

Xanthene Pharm Effects- _______ by increasing GFR, inhibiting ADH and increasing perfusion to kidney

Diuresis

23

The only two cases where caffeine is equal to or greater than in potency/efficacy of theophylline is _____ and _____.

CNS (equal), Skeletal Muscle (greater than)

24

The only two cases where caffeine is equal to or greater than in potency/efficacy of theophylline is _____ and _____.

CNS (equal), Skeletal Muscle (greater than)

25

Adverse reactions of Xanthenes-_____tenison and _____ forming.

hypotension and habit forming

26

Adverse reactions of Xanthenes-_____tenison and _____ forming.

hypotension and habit forming

27

Caffeine toxicity NOOOOO! ____ mg required to produce toxicity.

300 mg

28

INTERESTING! _____ or more cups of caffeine daily produces physical dependence (_____ mg /day > 6 cups of coffee = 510 mg)

5...600 mg

29

Caffeine- ______ syndrome begins within 24 hours of discontinuance and you can develop ______ to the effects. NOOOOOOO

withdrawl...tolerance

30

Therapeutic uses of Xanthenes- what in the lungs? What in the CNS?

Asthma and wakefulness

31

Therapeutic uses of Xanthenes- can help with some CNS depressant _______ as well as _____ when added with analgesics.

poisonings...migranes

32

Therapeutic uses of Xanthenes- Treatment of acute pulmonary _____ and apnea in preterm infants and lastly as a _______ by increasing kidney perfusion, inhibits ADH

edema...diuretic

33

CNS Sympathomimetics!!-Amphetamines, mech of action: Direct ______ or dopamine receptor agonists

alpha-1

34

CNS Sympathomimetics!!-Amphetamines, mech of action: much like an antidepressant, they are _____ inhibitors, ______ inhibitors

MAOI, and SSRI

35

CNS Sympathomimetics!!-Amphetamines, mech of action: Presynaptic releasers of endogenous ________.

catecholamines

36

CNS Sympathomimetics!!-Amphetamines, mech of action: Presynaptic releasers of endogenous ________.

catecholamines

37

Effects of CNS Sympathomimetics- they _______ fatigue! And increase wakefulness, mood, confidence, but they don't help you in exam performance :(

decrease

38

Effects of CNS Sympathomimetics- reduces ______ sleep

REM

39

Effects of CNS Sympathomimetics-Produces psychic depression, ______

paranoia (yikes)

40

Effects of CNS Sympathomimetics- Cool! it _____ appetite, but ______ develops after only 1 week. Also stimulates your medullary _______ center...

depresses....tolerance...respiratory

41

What is the "only good" therapeutic indication for amphetamines? What is a VERY common second indication?

Narcolepsy..hyperkinetic (ADD, ADHD)

42

Amphetamines-of interest...Tolerance develops to anorexia and euphoria, but not _______, Giving amphetamines (alpha 2 agonists) _______ analgesic effects of some opiates (meperidine)

wakefulness...enhances

43

CHRONIC toxicity of CNS sympathomimetics can lead to ________.

paranoid schizophrenia

44

With the amphetamine-like Cocaine, ______ and ______ remain in the synapse, it crosses the BBB and then causes _______.

NE and dopamine....euphoria

45

With the amphetamine-like Cocaine, Chronic inhalation through nose causes perforation of nasal septum due to constant __________ from NE release

vasoconstriction

46

Drugs for ADHD, _________ (______)* = blocks reuptake of dopaminergic neurons, your going to want to avoid _______ while on this drug.

methyl-phen-id-ate (Ritalin)...vasoconstrictors

47

Which ADHD med blocks the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine, inhibits monamine oxidase, enhances sympathomimetic response of epinephrine/norepinephrine = avoid vasoconstrictor

dextro-amphetamine (Dexadrine)

48

Which ADHD drug is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor?

atom-ox-et-ine (Straterra)

49

______ is a cough and cold medication to relieve bronchial and nasal congestion!

ephedrine (Pretz-D)

50

What two diet pills (amphetamines) have been pulled from the market?

PPA and ephedra

51

WARNING-Use caution when administering ________ with vasoconstrictors to patients using these drugs (AMPHETAMINES)

local anesthetics

52

WARNING-Use caution when administering ________ with vasoconstrictors to patients using these drugs (AMPHETAMINES)

local anesthetics

53

WHAAAA!?!? What "other stimulant" is sold as parenteral drug to reverse general anesthesia or drug-induced respiratory depression? What else can it treat???

dox-a-pram (Dopram)...apnea in infants (stimulates respiratory centers)

54

Even though most cholinergic receptors in brain are muscarinic, low doses of _______ from smoke stimulates nicotinic receptors in brain stem and cortex

NICOTINE

55

Higher doses of NICOTINE cause ______, emesis and stimulation of respiratory center....STILL higher concentrations cause ________, which can be FATAL

tremor....convulsions

56

NICOTINE IS ONE OF THE MOST _________ SUBSTANCES KNOWN!!!!

ADDICTING