Flashcards in Exam 5- THE BIG ONE....AUTONOMICS part 2 Deck (57):
_________: Block cholinergic transmission at neuromuscular junctions.
Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs
Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs-Block ________ transmission at neuromuscular junctions.
Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs act as either _______ (________)or _______ (________).
Antagonists (non-depolarizing) or agonists (depolarizing)
Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs inhibit the release of ______.
What are the 3 main Neuromuscular Blocking agents?
1.Tu(r)bo-cur-ar-ine 2.Succinyl-choline 3.Botulinum Toxin
Curare is a ________ neuromuscular blocking drug.
Which drug is known as the "arrow poison" drug?
Curare Competitively and REVERSIBLY inhibits ______ receptors at neuromuscular junction; blocks action of _____.
In curare-Depolarization of membrane is inhibited and muscle _______ is blocked.
Curare-Causes weakness of skeletal muscles; possible death due to ________ from paralysis of diaphragm
Curare-Competitive blockers can be overcome by administration of __________.
A DEPOLARIZING neuromuscular blocker that YOU NEED TO KNOW-Attaches to nicotinic receptor and like ACH, results in depolarization...Constant stimulation of receptor causes sodium channel to open, producing depolarization
A DEPOLARIZING neuromuscular blocker that YOU NEED TO KNOW-Transient fasciculations of muscles result
A DEPOLARIZING neuromuscular blocker that YOU NEED TO KNOW-________:With _____, receptor cannot transmit any further impulses and repolarization occurs as the sodium channel closes
A DEPOLARIZING neuromuscular blocker that YOU NEED TO KNOW-_______: Flaccid _______ is produced by resistance to depolarization
A DEPOLARIZING neuromuscular blocker that YOU NEED TO KNOW-_______: Paralysis lasts only a few ______ because drug is broken down by plasma cholinesterase
What drug do we use for endothracheal intubation?
What bacterium produces botulinum toxin?
Botulinum toxin affects ________ membrane of neuromuscular junctions.
Botulinum Toxin prevents _______-dependent release of ACH and therefore produces a state of _______.
With botulinum toxin muscle inactivation persists until new ______ grow from nerve and form junction plates on new areas of muscle cell walls. SO A LONG TIME
Muscle tics, muscle disorders, cosmetic procedures are indications for what Neuromuscular Blocking agent?
Ganglionic Blocking Agents- Inhibit _______ receptors, so blocks neurotransmission in both PANS and SANS.
What drug is so toxic that one drop on skin can be fatal?!?!?
Nicotine at _____ doses = produces stimulation due to depolarization
Nicotine at _____ doses = produces no response at nicotinic receptors (nicotinic escape) but stimulates _______ receptors
Nicotine causes ______ paralysis; increases BP, HR, GI motility and secretions and ______ blood vessels and ______. blood flow to extremities
respiratory...constricts...reduces...Its like a PANS and SANS back and forth battle!
What are the 2 main indications for nicotine?
Tobacco cessation therapy, Also used as an insecticide..hahah
Adrenergic Drugs- Act at receptors of the _______ nervous system
Adrenergic Drugs- Endogenous (naturally-occurring) Neurotransmitters = synthesized in neural tissues = __________
What are the three catecholamines? Where would I mainly find these dudes?
Epinephrine-adrenal medulla....Norepinephrine-terminal nerve endings...Dopamine-brain, splanchnic, renal vasculature
What is another name for and exogenous neurotransmitter?
What are the two classes of adrenergic receptors?
alpha and beta
Binding of epi/nor epi to an alpha-1 causes....
smooth muscle contraction
Binding of epi/norepi to an alpha-2 causes....
inhibition of neurotransmitter release AND smooth muscle contraction
Binding of eli/norepi to a beta causes....
Heart muscle contraction, smooth muscle RELAXATION, and glycogenolysis
What are the three classifications of adrenergic drugs?
Direct acting, indirect acting, mixed action
______ acting adrenergic drugs produce effects by directly stimulating receptor
_______ acting adrenergic drugs cause the release of endogenous norepinephrine, which then produces the response
_______ acting adrenergic drugs either stimulate the receptor directly or cause release of norepinephrine
What are the 4 categories of ADRENERGIC DRUGS?
1. Alpha-Agonists 2.Beta-agonists 3.Alpha-antagonists 4.beta-antagonists
What are the 2 effects of an ALPHA receptor stimulation?
1.Vasoconstriction of vessels in the skin (pale looking/stops bleeding in fight scenario) 2.Smooth muscle contraction
What are the 3 effects of a BETA-1 receptor stimulation???
1.Increase RATE of heart contractions 2.Increase the FORCE of heart contractions 3. break down glycogen
What are the 3 effects of BETA-2 receptor stimulation???
1. Smooth muscle RELAXATION 2.VasoDILATION of skeletal muscle vessels 3.BronchoDILATION (relax of smooth muscle in bronchioles)
￼￼￼￼Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics)-CNS _______.
CNS excitation (alertness, anxiety, restlessness)
￼￼￼￼Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics)-________ peripheral resistance
￼￼￼￼Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics)-_______ blood pressure
￼￼￼￼Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics)-______ pupils (_______)
Dilates pupils (mydriasis)
￼￼￼￼Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics)- _____ breathing
￼￼￼￼Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics)- _________ (_________ blood sugar)
Hyperglycemia (increased blood sugar)
￼￼￼￼Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics)-________ (vaso________ to parotids decreases ______ saliva; increased ______ saliva)
Xerostomia (vasoconstriction to parotids decreases watery saliva; increased mucous saliva)
Uses for Adrenergic Agonists-________= epinephrine is used to prolong the action of anesthetics and to produce hemostasis
Uses for Adrenergic Agonists- _________ = nose drops/sprays that cause vasoconstriction of blood vessels in nose and reduce swelling of mucous membranes in nose
Uses for Adrenergic Agonists- Treatment of ______ = elevate low blood pressure
Uses for Adrenergic Agonists-Treatment of ________ = epinephrine can be used to “jump start” the heart
Uses for Adrenergic Agonists-______ and _______ = bronchodilation eases breathing
Asthma and emphysema