Exam 5- THE BIG ONE....AUTONOMICS part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 5- THE BIG ONE....AUTONOMICS part 2 Deck (57):
1

_________: Block cholinergic transmission at neuromuscular junctions.

Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs

2

Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs-Block ________ transmission at neuromuscular junctions.

cholinergic

3

Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs act as either _______ (________)or _______ (________).

Antagonists (non-depolarizing) or agonists (depolarizing)

4

Neuromuscular Blocking Drugs inhibit the release of ______.

ACh

5

What are the 3 main Neuromuscular Blocking agents?

1.Tu(r)bo-cur-ar-ine 2.Succinyl-choline 3.Botulinum Toxin

6

Curare is a ________ neuromuscular blocking drug.

non-depolarizing

7

Which drug is known as the "arrow poison" drug?

Curare

8

Curare Competitively and REVERSIBLY inhibits ______ receptors at neuromuscular junction; blocks action of _____.

nicotinic....ACh

9

In curare-Depolarization of membrane is inhibited and muscle _______ is blocked.

contraction

10

Curare-Causes weakness of skeletal muscles; possible death due to ________ from paralysis of diaphragm

asphyxiation

11

Curare-Competitive blockers can be overcome by administration of __________.

cholinesterase inhibitors

12

A DEPOLARIZING neuromuscular blocker that YOU NEED TO KNOW-Attaches to nicotinic receptor and like ACH, results in depolarization...Constant stimulation of receptor causes sodium channel to open, producing depolarization

Succinylcholine

13

A DEPOLARIZING neuromuscular blocker that YOU NEED TO KNOW-Transient fasciculations of muscles result

Succinylcholine

14

A DEPOLARIZING neuromuscular blocker that YOU NEED TO KNOW-________:With _____, receptor cannot transmit any further impulses and repolarization occurs as the sodium channel closes

Succinylcholine....time

15

A DEPOLARIZING neuromuscular blocker that YOU NEED TO KNOW-_______: Flaccid _______ is produced by resistance to depolarization

Succinylcholine...paralysis

16

A DEPOLARIZING neuromuscular blocker that YOU NEED TO KNOW-_______: Paralysis lasts only a few ______ because drug is broken down by plasma cholinesterase

Succinylcholine...minutes

17

What drug do we use for endothracheal intubation?

Succinylcholine

18

What bacterium produces botulinum toxin?

Clostridium Botulinum

19

Botulinum toxin affects ________ membrane of neuromuscular junctions.

pre-synaptic

20

Botulinum Toxin prevents _______-dependent release of ACH and therefore produces a state of _______.

Calcium...denervation

21

With botulinum toxin muscle inactivation persists until new ______ grow from nerve and form junction plates on new areas of muscle cell walls. SO A LONG TIME

fibrils

22

Muscle tics, muscle disorders, cosmetic procedures are indications for what Neuromuscular Blocking agent?

Botulinum Toxin

23

Ganglionic Blocking Agents- Inhibit _______ receptors, so blocks neurotransmission in both PANS and SANS.

nicotinic

24

What drug is so toxic that one drop on skin can be fatal?!?!?

Nicotine

25

Nicotine at _____ doses = produces stimulation due to depolarization

low

26

Nicotine at _____ doses = produces no response at nicotinic receptors (nicotinic escape) but stimulates _______ receptors

high...muscarinic

27

Nicotine causes ______ paralysis; increases BP, HR, GI motility and secretions and ______ blood vessels and ______. blood flow to extremities

respiratory...constricts...reduces...Its like a PANS and SANS back and forth battle!

28

What are the 2 main indications for nicotine?

Tobacco cessation therapy, Also used as an insecticide..hahah

29

Adrenergic Drugs- Act at receptors of the _______ nervous system

sympathetic

30

Adrenergic Drugs- Endogenous (naturally-occurring) Neurotransmitters = synthesized in neural tissues = __________

Cat-e-chol-amines

31

What are the three catecholamines? Where would I mainly find these dudes?

Epinephrine-adrenal medulla....Norepinephrine-terminal nerve endings...Dopamine-brain, splanchnic, renal vasculature

32

What is another name for and exogenous neurotransmitter?

Iso-pro-ter-en-ol

33

What are the two classes of adrenergic receptors?

alpha and beta

34

Binding of epi/nor epi to an alpha-1 causes....

smooth muscle contraction

35

Binding of epi/norepi to an alpha-2 causes....

inhibition of neurotransmitter release AND smooth muscle contraction

36

Binding of eli/norepi to a beta causes....

Heart muscle contraction, smooth muscle RELAXATION, and glycogenolysis

37

What are the three classifications of adrenergic drugs?

Direct acting, indirect acting, mixed action

38

______ acting adrenergic drugs produce effects by directly stimulating receptor

direct acting

39

_______ acting adrenergic drugs cause the release of endogenous norepinephrine, which then produces the response

indirect acting

40

_______ acting adrenergic drugs either stimulate the receptor directly or cause release of norepinephrine

mixed action

41

What are the 4 categories of ADRENERGIC DRUGS?

1. Alpha-Agonists 2.Beta-agonists 3.Alpha-antagonists 4.beta-antagonists

42

What are the 2 effects of an ALPHA receptor stimulation?

1.Vasoconstriction of vessels in the skin (pale looking/stops bleeding in fight scenario) 2.Smooth muscle contraction

43

What are the 3 effects of a BETA-1 receptor stimulation???

1.Increase RATE of heart contractions 2.Increase the FORCE of heart contractions 3. break down glycogen

44

What are the 3 effects of BETA-2 receptor stimulation???

1. Smooth muscle RELAXATION 2.VasoDILATION of skeletal muscle vessels 3.BronchoDILATION (relax of smooth muscle in bronchioles)

45

Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics)-CNS _______.

CNS excitation (alertness, anxiety, restlessness)

46

Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics)-________ peripheral resistance

increased

47

Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics)-_______ blood pressure

increased

48

Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics)-______ pupils (_______)

Dilates pupils (mydriasis)

49

Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics)- _____ breathing

ease

50

Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics)- _________ (_________ blood sugar)

Hyperglycemia (increased blood sugar)

51

Adrenergic Agonists (Sympathomimetics)-________ (vaso________ to parotids decreases ______ saliva; increased ______ saliva)

Xerostomia (vasoconstriction to parotids decreases watery saliva; increased mucous saliva)

52

Uses for Adrenergic Agonists-________= epinephrine is used to prolong the action of anesthetics and to produce hemostasis

VASOCONSTRICTION

53

Uses for Adrenergic Agonists- _________ = nose drops/sprays that cause vasoconstriction of blood vessels in nose and reduce swelling of mucous membranes in nose

decongestants

54

Uses for Adrenergic Agonists- Treatment of ______ = elevate low blood pressure

shock

55

Uses for Adrenergic Agonists-Treatment of ________ = epinephrine can be used to “jump start” the heart

cardiac arrest

56

Uses for Adrenergic Agonists-______ and _______ = bronchodilation eases breathing

Asthma and emphysema

57

Uses for Adrenergic Agonists-CNS _______ = amphetamines (stimulants) are used for treatment of ADD and ADHD

stimulation