Flashcards in Exam 2 Cervical Spine Part 2 Deck (29)
Where is X-axis rotation greatest in the lower cervical spine? least?
Where in the lower cervical spine is Y-axis rotation the most limited? Greatest?
T/F: Y-axis rotation at C2-C3 is greater than at C3-C4.
False; greatest from C3-C6
Where in the lower cervical spine is Z-axis rotation the greatest? least?
During lateral bending of the cervical spine, what motion is coupled with +thetaZ? -thetaZ?
+thetaZ with -thetaY
-thetaZ with +thetaY
T/F: There is more rotation with lateral bending in the lower cervicals.
False; more in the upper
In addition to the cervical spine, what other area of the spine do the spinous processes rotate to the contralateral side during lateral bending?
Where are the steepest arches of curvature (during flexion/extension)? Flatest?
steepest at C6 and C7;
Flat at C2
What ailment decreases the acuity of the ThetaX arc of curvature?
What orthogonal motion is limited by the Anterior Longitudinal Ligament? Intertransverse ligament?
Neg. Theta X (extension);
Theta Z (Contralateral lateral flexion )
Which surfaces of the lower cervical vertebral bodies are sellar or saddle-shaped?
Superior and inferior surfaces
T/F: The shape of the lower cervical bodies reduces X axis rotation.
False; promote X axis rotation
T/F: The shape of the lower cervical bodies reduces X axis translation.
T/F: In the cervical spine, axial rotation about a longitudinal axis and lateral rotation about a sagittal axis are unnatural and not pure movements. For this reason, they are always coupled with one another.
What motion is limited by the uncinate processes?
Which area of the annulus is thickest and strongest in the cervical spine acting like an interosseous ligament?
T/F: The Facet Joints (Z-Joints) in the cervical spine are teardrop-shaped and angled at an average of 60 degrees between the coronal and transverse planes.
False; 45 degrees
What are the articular processes of the Facet joints covered with?
1-2 mm of hyaline cartilage
What is Facet orienation (angle) of the upper cervical spine? lower cervical spine? average of all cervicals?
T/F: The superior facet orientation is the cervical spine is Anterior, inferior, and lateral.
False; this is true of the inferior facet orientation. Superior facets are opposite.
T/F: Aging thins the subarticular bone and thickens the articular cartilage of the Z Joint after about age 20.
False; thins cartilage and thickens subarticular bone. also osteophytes form
What is the term for sensory perception of movement or position within the body?
What are the 3 most important structures for cervical spine proprioception?
IVD, Facet joints, and Cervical musculature
In a typical cervical IVD, is the nucleus innervated?
What is likely the source of innervation for the IVD, primarily the annulus fibrosus?
Ventral Primary Ramus
Which layers of the IVD show receptors resembling PAcinian corpuscles? Golgi Tendon Organs?
Pacinian (Type II) =superficial layers
GTOs (Type III) =Deeper layers
T/F: The majority of Facet Joint Mechanoreceptors resemble Type III (GTOs).
False; Type II (Pacinian corpuscles)
Which type of mechanoreceptors are rapid adapting, have a low threshold, and have an afferent ending?
Type II (Pacinian corpuscles)