Exam 2 Cervical Spine Part 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2 Cervical Spine Part 2 Deck (29)
1

Where is X-axis rotation greatest in the lower cervical spine? least?

C4-C5/C5-C6
C7-T1

2

Where in the lower cervical spine is Y-axis rotation the most limited? Greatest?

C7-T1
C3-C6

3

T/F: Y-axis rotation at C2-C3 is greater than at C3-C4.

False; greatest from C3-C6

4

Where in the lower cervical spine is Z-axis rotation the greatest? least?

C3-C5
C7-T1

5

During lateral bending of the cervical spine, what motion is coupled with +thetaZ? -thetaZ?

+thetaZ with -thetaY
-thetaZ with +thetaY

6

T/F: There is more rotation with lateral bending in the lower cervicals.

False; more in the upper

7

In addition to the cervical spine, what other area of the spine do the spinous processes rotate to the contralateral side during lateral bending?

lumbar

8

Where are the steepest arches of curvature (during flexion/extension)? Flatest?

steepest at C6 and C7;
Flat at C2

9

What ailment decreases the acuity of the ThetaX arc of curvature?

degeneration

10

What orthogonal motion is limited by the Anterior Longitudinal Ligament? Intertransverse ligament?

Neg. Theta X (extension);
Theta Z (Contralateral lateral flexion )

11

Which surfaces of the lower cervical vertebral bodies are sellar or saddle-shaped?

Superior and inferior surfaces

12

T/F: The shape of the lower cervical bodies reduces X axis rotation.

False; promote X axis rotation

13

T/F: The shape of the lower cervical bodies reduces X axis translation.

True

14

T/F: In the cervical spine, axial rotation about a longitudinal axis and lateral rotation about a sagittal axis are unnatural and not pure movements. For this reason, they are always coupled with one another.

True

15

What motion is limited by the uncinate processes?

lateral flexion

16

Which area of the annulus is thickest and strongest in the cervical spine acting like an interosseous ligament?

anterior annulus

17

T/F: The Facet Joints (Z-Joints) in the cervical spine are teardrop-shaped and angled at an average of 60 degrees between the coronal and transverse planes.

False; 45 degrees

18

What are the articular processes of the Facet joints covered with?

1-2 mm of hyaline cartilage

19

What is Facet orienation (angle) of the upper cervical spine? lower cervical spine? average of all cervicals?

35 degrees
65 degrees
45 degrees

20

T/F: The superior facet orientation is the cervical spine is Anterior, inferior, and lateral.

False; this is true of the inferior facet orientation. Superior facets are opposite.

21

T/F: Aging thins the subarticular bone and thickens the articular cartilage of the Z Joint after about age 20.

False; thins cartilage and thickens subarticular bone. also osteophytes form

22

What is the term for sensory perception of movement or position within the body?

Proprioception

23

What are the 3 most important structures for cervical spine proprioception?

IVD, Facet joints, and Cervical musculature

24

In a typical cervical IVD, is the nucleus innervated?

No.

25

What is likely the source of innervation for the IVD, primarily the annulus fibrosus?

Ventral Primary Ramus

26

Which layers of the IVD show receptors resembling PAcinian corpuscles? Golgi Tendon Organs?

Pacinian (Type II) =superficial layers
GTOs (Type III) =Deeper layers

27

T/F: The majority of Facet Joint Mechanoreceptors resemble Type III (GTOs).

False; Type II (Pacinian corpuscles)

28

Which type of mechanoreceptors are rapid adapting, have a low threshold, and have an afferent ending?

Type II (Pacinian corpuscles)

29

T/F: There is no apparent difference in the distribution of receptors within the facet capsules of the upper cervical versus the lower cervical spine.

True