Flashcards in Exam 3 Subluxation Part 2 Deck (34)
Whose work led to an alternative model of subluxation sybdrome-induced, impulse-based neurodysfunction?
Earl Homewood and Irwin Korr
According to Homewood and Korr, vertebral joint dysfunctions are lesions capable of inducing what kinds of chronically altered input?
nociceptive and proprioceptive
T/F: According to Homewood and Korr, the persistent efferent input of vertebral joint dysfunctions leads to the development of pathologic somatosomatic or somatovisceral reflexes.
False; should say Afferent input not efferent
T/F: Segmental muscle hypertonicity that may be associated with joint dysfunction is an example of the Somatovisceral Reflex Hypothesis.
False; this is an example of the somato-somatic reflex hypothesis
Which reflex hypothesis can described as afferent impulses from one body area can result in reflex activity in other body areas?
Which reflex hypothesis can be described as afferent impulses in one body are can result in reflex activity in correspondingly innervated visceral organ activity?
T/F: Heart palpitations secondary to thoracic join dysfunction is an example of the viscerosomatic reflex hypothesis.
T/F: Pain and muscle tightness in the left shoulder with the onset of MI is an example of the viscerosomatic reflex hypothesis.
Visceral afferent fibers reflexly cause somatic problems. Which Reflex Hypothesis is this?
T/F: Distention of the gut results in increased contraction of the gut muscle is an example of the Viscerosomatic reflex hypothesis.
Visceral afferent impulses result in activation of visceral efferent output of the sympathetic or parasympathetic motor neurons. Which reflex hypothesis is this?
T/F: Afferent pathways from the somatic and visceral structures can produce somatosomatic, somatovisceral, viscerosomatic, and viscerovisceral reflex phenomena.
T/F: A 1958 study from the Journal of the American Medical Association concluded that processes in the vertebral column seemed to play a part in 50% of the patients with peptic ulcers.
False; actually stated 90%, not 50%
Subluxations can affect upon the ascending paths of the reticular activating system. Which Reflex Hypothesis is this?
Which Reflex hypothesis is this an example of? Joint dysfunction leading to conditions such as insomnia and restlessness.
Patients under significant emotional distress at the time of a car accident showed more neck pain 4 weeks post injury. Which Reflex Hypothesis is this example?
Significant conscious or unconscious stressors perpetuate sensitization of afferent nerve fibers, amplification of signals by amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex and reinforcement of efferent signals in the ANS. Which Reflex Hypothesis is this?
Which theory/hypothesis focuses on lowered tissue resistance that results from abnormal innervation (susceptible host)?
What are the 3 Inflammatory-Vascular Components of the VSC which may be initiated by joint injury, chronic mechanical joint derangement, or joint immobilization?
vascular congestion, ischemia, and inflammation
T/F: A VSC can cause venous stasis which may lead to local ischemia, inflammation and potential associated joint stiffness.
Persistent pain and inflammation may lead to plastic changes in the PNS and CNS that lower pain thresholds and give rise to allodynia, hyperalgesia, and what?
and sensitization of the CNS
T/F: Some degree of joint or soft tissue inflammation should be suspected when the patient's pain is constant.
T/F: There is no one true or correct theory of subluxation.
T/F: Manual therapy includes all procedures that utilize instruments like the Activator to mobilize, adjust, manipulate, create traction, or massage the somatic or visceral structures of the body.
False; manual therapy includes all procedures that USE THE HANDS to do this
T/F: When a subluxation is treated the adjustive thrust is typically delivered in the direction of reduced joint motion to restore motion and alignment.
What is the most commonly applied chiropractic therapy?
The purpose of an adjustment is to restore joint mobility. How many spinal joints or segmental motion unit are typically meant to be influenced by an adjustment?
Do bones subluxate?
no, only an articulation can
Can a single vertebra become subluxated?
T/F: chiropractors adjust individual vertebrae.
False; we are adjusting motion units
What joints are included in a "motion unit?"
3-joint complex: the IVD surrounded by 2 adjacent vertebrae from the anterior joint and the 2 zygapophyseal joints form the posterior joints
T/F: Physiologic stretching, compression, and stimulation of the contents of the IVF is completely normal and necessary to maintain a healthy state.
T/F: Acute subluxation presents with signs of hypoactivity/compression.
False this is true of chronic subluxation