Exam 3 Subluxation Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3 Subluxation Part 1 Deck (33):
1

What are the 4 distinct ways that "subluxation" is used by our profession?

Chiropractic theory
Professional Identity
Clinical Finding Clinical Diagnosis

2

T/F: DD Palmer was the first to say that symptoms/dysfunction are caused by pinched nerves.

False; No one in Chiropractic (should) claim the nerves are pinched. DD said it was due to subluxation of a vertebrae which narrows the interverebral foramina.
"The real, primary cause of disease is tension; the cause of tension is pressure; the cause of pressure in 95% of diseased conditions is subluxated vertebrae."

3

"The real, primary cause of disease is tension; the cause of tension is pressure; the cause of pressure in ___% of diseased conditions is subluxated vertebrae."

95%

4

T/F: Marked or prolonged compression of the nerve roots within the IVF was hypothesized to lead to increased neural activity, increased pain, parasthesia, and hypertonic muscles according to the theory of subluxation induced nerve root compression.

False; this is true of moderate compression. marked/prolonged induces loss of function

5

T/F: Nerves may be impinged upon by any displaced bone, but pinched only by fracture and extreme displacement.

True (according to DD)

6

T/F: Occlusion of the IVF is the primary cause of disease, according to DD Palmer.

False; impingement/pressure, not squeezing or pinched

7

Why are spinal nerve rootlets at the interpedicular region more susceptible to pressure, inflammation and ischemia than are the nerve roots as they exit the IVF? What structure is especially susceptible here?

spinal nerve rootlets lack the epineural covering t the interpedicular region;
DRGs

8

T/F: Chronically injured dorsal nerve roots respond more vigorously to mechanical deformation.

True

9

T/F: Spinal nerve roots must be DIRECTLY compressed by bony structures to develop pathological dysunction.

False, other stuctrues within the IVF (blood vessels, lymphatics, fat, etc) can compress the nerve roots

10

Sustained misalignment or inflammation of th spinal motion segment may stretch or compress the local vascular structures, which can lead to what?

disruption of the neural blood supply and neuroischemia

11

T/F: Mechanical pressures and tension can lead to subclinical neurophysiologic alterations ranging from changes in intraneural protein composition to altered nerve conduction.

True

12

T/F: The density of sodium ion channels in the soma and initial segment of the DRG cells is relatively low, suggesting these regions may be unusually unexcitable.

False; relatively high, thus, unusually excitable

13

T/F: DRs and DRGs are less susceptible to the effects of mechanical compression.

False; more susceptible

14

T/F: Whether spinal manipulation can alter neural function by mechanically changing compressional pressures or reducing the concentration of metabolites in the IVF is unknow,

True

15

What region is most likely narrowed by joint malposition which contributes to dysfunction of the spinal NRs?

interpedicular zone

16

Do subluxations have a better chance of altering NR function if they are secondary to other disorders or primary?

secondary to other disorders that have already let to narrowing of the lateral recess (disc herniation, DJD, etc)

17

What is the term for subluxations which presents it as a more complex, multifaceted pathologic entity?

vertebral sublation complex

18

What is the term for an aggregate of signs and symptoms that relate to pathophysiology or dysfunction of spinal and pelvic motion segments or to periperal joints?

subluxation syndrome

19

What was important about the combined works of Henri Gillet, Fred Illi, James Mennell, Raymond Sandoz, and Joh Faye?

the importance of the dynamic characteristics of joint subluxation moved to the forefront which allowd the scientiific comunity to be more open to the Chiropractic profession as a whole

20

What is assessed in an orthoneurologic exam which aids in the determining of the prognosis?

assesses the state of the pathologic tissue changes

21

T/F: the biomechanical analysis of the vertebral subluxation complex determines the therapeutic procedures to be used an the treatment schedule.

True

22

What 3 broad categories of components can the VSC be divided into?

mechanical, neurobiologic, and inflammatory-vascular components

23

What is the premise behind Chiropractic?

correcting the vertebral subluxation

24

T/F: the principal therapeutic effort of chiropractic addresses a biomechanical fault

true

25

T/F: A Chiropractic adjustment can be described as high velocity, low-amplitude, long leverage dynamic thrust of a controlled direction.

False; short leverage

26

What is the audible cracking sound you sometimes hear during an adjustments?

cavitation

27

Why do chiropractors use adjustments?

to influence joint and neurophysiologic function

28

What are the 5 components of the Vertebral Subluxation Complex originally outlined by Faye in the 1980s?

Kinesiopathology,
Neuropathology,
Myopathology,
Histopathology,
Biomechanical abnormalities`

29

T/F: When there is a change in structure, there will be a change in function.

True

30

Why does vertebral hypomobility sometimes cause pain and abnormal spinal mechanics?

because of changes in sensory input from spinal and paraspinal tissues

31

T/F: Both fibrosis and persistent muscle hypotonicity typically cause pain and dysfunction.

True

32

T/F: Aggressive early care and restoration of motion provide the best opportunity for optimal healing while bed rest and increases the chances of long-term disability.

True

33

Who were the guys responsible for the Theory of Altered Somatic and Visceral Reflexes?

Earl Homewood and Irwin Korr