Exam 2 Thoracic Spine Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2 Thoracic Spine Deck (48):
1

T/F: the thoracic spine is a transition area between the cervical and lumbar areas, is designed for rigidity and protection of the thoracic viscera, and is the least mobile region of the spinal column.

True

2

What additional articulations make the thoracic vertebrae unique?

rib articulations

3

T/F: the thoracic spine is especially prone to chornic postural problems and myofascial pain syndromes.

True

4

Which vertebrae does the sympathetic trunk lie on?

T1-L2

5

T/F: biomechanical changes to the thoracic spine may result in effects to the sympatheti nervous system.

True (T1-L2)

6

T/F: Thoracic spinous processes are short and thin.

False; long and slender

7

T/f: Thoracic spinous processes limit extension.

True

8

In which region of the thoracic spine do the spinous processes typically overlap?

midthoraacic

9

T/F: the TVPs of thoracic vertebrae generally have a convex facet on the anterior side.

False; concave facet on anterior side

10

What is the facet angle orientation on average in the thoracics?

60 degrees from the horizontal plane and 20 degrees from the frontal plane (Y axis rotation)

11

T/F: Thoracic facets are oriented at a relatively steep angle.

True

12

T/F: Thoracic IVDs have a greater disc-to-height ratio than cervical IVDs.

False; thoracics have smallest ratio of the spine (disc to body height ratio) This low ratio contributes to the lack of flexibility

13

T/F: The nucleus is more centrally located within the annulus of the thoracics than the other regions of the spine.

True

14

What is the average angle of thoracic kyphosis in a healthy spine?

45 degrees (range of 20-50)

15

T/F: a thoracic kyphotic curve of greater than 55 degrees is considered hypokyphotic.

False; hyperkyphotic

16

What anatomy is most responsile for maintaining the primary, structural curve of the thoracic spine?

wedge-shaped vertebral bodies

17

Where is the apex of the thoracic curve?

T6-T7

18

Alterations in the primary thoracic curve are often associated with chronic stretch of which muscles?

trapezius, posterior back, and neck muscles

19

Juvenile kyphosis and osteoporosis can result in an increased thoracic kyphosis. What is the other name for Juvenile kyphosis?

Scheuerman's disease

20

How does increasing the thoracic kyposis interfere with normal physiologicl functioning? Think generally.

crowds thoracic viscera

21

What motion is most limited in the thoracic spine?

extension (impaction of articular and spinous processes)

22

T/F: Both flexion and extension are restricted in the thoracic spine.

True

23

What segments of the thoracic spine have the greatest combined flexion/extension?

T10-L1 (Especially T11-L1)

(slide 11)

24

What movement is coupled with thetaX in the thoracics?

slight +/- Z translation

25

Which area of the thoracic spine has the greates range of lateral bending (thetaZ)?

T11-T12

26

T/F: The greatest range of axial rotation in the thoracic spine exists in the lower thoracics (T9-T12).

False; unlike lateral bend and flexion/extension, the upper thoracic exhibit the greatest axial rotation.

27

Where in the thoracic spine is the greatest rotation observed while walking?

middle thoracics

28

T/F: ThetaZ is always coupled with ThetaY in the thoracic spine, especially in the upper thoracics.

True; lateral bending and axial rotation are coupled in thoracics

29

T/F: During lateral bending (in the thoracics) the spinous processes will go to the contralateral side just like in the cervicals.

False; contralateral in T1-T4
contralateral OR ipsilateral in T5-T8
ipsilateral in T9-T12 (like lumbars)

30

Does the rib cage add to the spinal stability or is it just for protecting vital organs?

rib cage plays a significant role in stabilization

31

During what motion does the rib cage (with sternum) offer the most support to the spinal column?

extension (-thetaX)

32

T/F: The rib cage increases Y axis stability x10.

False; x4

33

What two groups can the rib articulations be divided into?

costovertebral joints and costotransverse joints

34

What type of joint connects the heads of the ribs to the vertebrae? What type of joint connects the necks and tubercles of the ribs to the vertebrae?

costovertebral joints;
costotransverse (connects to TVPs)

35

Which ribs articulate with only a single vertebrae rather than two adjacent vertebral bodies?

1, 10, 11, and 12

36

Which ribs do not have costotransverse articulations?

11 and 12

37

T/F: Both costovertebral and costotransverse joints are each tightly secured by ligaments and both are true synovial joints.

True

38

T/F: Costotransverse joints are surrounded by a joint capsule and are prone to the same pathologic conditions as other synovial joints, including subluxation.

True

39

Which ribs connect to the sternum directly? via the costocartilage? which are free floating?

1-7;
8-10;
11-12

40

T/F: Ribs move with the thoracic spine during lateral flexion, flexion, and extension.

True

41

What vertebrae are considered part of the Thoracocervical Junction?

C6-T3

42

T/F: lateral flexion is coupled with ipsilateral rotation in the thoracics just like in the cervicals.

True

43

What area is structurally and functionally related to the neurovascular structures of the upper extremities, because this area forms the thoracic outlet?

Thoracocervical Junction (C6-T3)

44

Because of the presence of certain muscles, unique characteristic distribution of body fat, and general structural characteristics for transition, what area has been deemed a "difficult area to adjust?"

thoracocervical junction (C6-T3)

45

What vertebrae are part of the Thoracolumbar Junction?

T10-L1

46

What is the most significant structural characteristic of the thoracolumbar junction?

the change from the coronal facet plane in the T-spine to the sagittal plane facets in the L-spine

47

Where does the facet transition of the thoracolumbar junction typically occur?

T11-T12 but can occur anywhere from T10-L1

48

T/F: Dysfunction within the lower T-spine may refer pain to the posterolateral buttock, posterior iliac crest, and groin area, accounting for up to as high as 60% of chronic and acute back pain.

True (according to Maigne)