Flashcards in Exam 2 Thoracic Spine Deck (48):
T/F: the thoracic spine is a transition area between the cervical and lumbar areas, is designed for rigidity and protection of the thoracic viscera, and is the least mobile region of the spinal column.
What additional articulations make the thoracic vertebrae unique?
T/F: the thoracic spine is especially prone to chornic postural problems and myofascial pain syndromes.
Which vertebrae does the sympathetic trunk lie on?
T/F: biomechanical changes to the thoracic spine may result in effects to the sympatheti nervous system.
T/F: Thoracic spinous processes are short and thin.
False; long and slender
T/f: Thoracic spinous processes limit extension.
In which region of the thoracic spine do the spinous processes typically overlap?
T/F: the TVPs of thoracic vertebrae generally have a convex facet on the anterior side.
False; concave facet on anterior side
What is the facet angle orientation on average in the thoracics?
60 degrees from the horizontal plane and 20 degrees from the frontal plane (Y axis rotation)
T/F: Thoracic facets are oriented at a relatively steep angle.
T/F: Thoracic IVDs have a greater disc-to-height ratio than cervical IVDs.
False; thoracics have smallest ratio of the spine (disc to body height ratio) This low ratio contributes to the lack of flexibility
T/F: The nucleus is more centrally located within the annulus of the thoracics than the other regions of the spine.
What is the average angle of thoracic kyphosis in a healthy spine?
45 degrees (range of 20-50)
T/F: a thoracic kyphotic curve of greater than 55 degrees is considered hypokyphotic.
What anatomy is most responsile for maintaining the primary, structural curve of the thoracic spine?
wedge-shaped vertebral bodies
Where is the apex of the thoracic curve?
Alterations in the primary thoracic curve are often associated with chronic stretch of which muscles?
trapezius, posterior back, and neck muscles
Juvenile kyphosis and osteoporosis can result in an increased thoracic kyphosis. What is the other name for Juvenile kyphosis?
How does increasing the thoracic kyposis interfere with normal physiologicl functioning? Think generally.
crowds thoracic viscera
What motion is most limited in the thoracic spine?
extension (impaction of articular and spinous processes)
T/F: Both flexion and extension are restricted in the thoracic spine.
What segments of the thoracic spine have the greatest combined flexion/extension?
T10-L1 (Especially T11-L1)
What movement is coupled with thetaX in the thoracics?
slight +/- Z translation
Which area of the thoracic spine has the greates range of lateral bending (thetaZ)?
T/F: The greatest range of axial rotation in the thoracic spine exists in the lower thoracics (T9-T12).
False; unlike lateral bend and flexion/extension, the upper thoracic exhibit the greatest axial rotation.
Where in the thoracic spine is the greatest rotation observed while walking?
T/F: ThetaZ is always coupled with ThetaY in the thoracic spine, especially in the upper thoracics.
True; lateral bending and axial rotation are coupled in thoracics
T/F: During lateral bending (in the thoracics) the spinous processes will go to the contralateral side just like in the cervicals.
False; contralateral in T1-T4
contralateral OR ipsilateral in T5-T8
ipsilateral in T9-T12 (like lumbars)
Does the rib cage add to the spinal stability or is it just for protecting vital organs?
rib cage plays a significant role in stabilization
During what motion does the rib cage (with sternum) offer the most support to the spinal column?
T/F: The rib cage increases Y axis stability x10.
What two groups can the rib articulations be divided into?
costovertebral joints and costotransverse joints
What type of joint connects the heads of the ribs to the vertebrae? What type of joint connects the necks and tubercles of the ribs to the vertebrae?
costotransverse (connects to TVPs)
Which ribs articulate with only a single vertebrae rather than two adjacent vertebral bodies?
1, 10, 11, and 12
Which ribs do not have costotransverse articulations?
11 and 12
T/F: Both costovertebral and costotransverse joints are each tightly secured by ligaments and both are true synovial joints.
T/F: Costotransverse joints are surrounded by a joint capsule and are prone to the same pathologic conditions as other synovial joints, including subluxation.
Which ribs connect to the sternum directly? via the costocartilage? which are free floating?
T/F: Ribs move with the thoracic spine during lateral flexion, flexion, and extension.
What vertebrae are considered part of the Thoracocervical Junction?
T/F: lateral flexion is coupled with ipsilateral rotation in the thoracics just like in the cervicals.
What area is structurally and functionally related to the neurovascular structures of the upper extremities, because this area forms the thoracic outlet?
Thoracocervical Junction (C6-T3)
Because of the presence of certain muscles, unique characteristic distribution of body fat, and general structural characteristics for transition, what area has been deemed a "difficult area to adjust?"
thoracocervical junction (C6-T3)
What vertebrae are part of the Thoracolumbar Junction?
What is the most significant structural characteristic of the thoracolumbar junction?
the change from the coronal facet plane in the T-spine to the sagittal plane facets in the L-spine
Where does the facet transition of the thoracolumbar junction typically occur?
T11-T12 but can occur anywhere from T10-L1