Exam 3 Balance/Posture Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3 Balance/Posture Part 1 Deck (33):
1

What is the term for the point at which the force of gravity seems to be concentrated?

Center of mass/gravity

2

What is the term for a vertical line representing gravity that passes through a system's center of mass/gravity?

line of gravity

3

T/F: In a typical person exhibiting proper, neutral posture, from the lateral view, the line of gravity passes through the vertex, mastoid process, Acromion process, and through the bodies of C1, C6, T11, L5, and S1 along with other structures.

True

4

What is the term for the area bound by regions of contact between a body and support surface or surfaces?

Base of support (BOS)

5

What term is the ability to maintain the center-of-gravity of an object within its base of support and is also known as stability?

Balance

6

What is your BOS when sitting?

the area bound by your thigh and buttocks

7

What term refers to the boundaries within which the body can maintain stability without changing BOS?

stability limits

8

What happens if COG moves beyond limits of the BOS?

fall
(COG=center of gravity and BOS=base of support)

9

What results from the interaction between the velocity and position of COG?

stability limits

10

T/F: Fear of falling has no impact of dynamic stability limits.

False

11

What are the 5 main muscles/muscle groups considered primary postural (anti-gravity) muscles?

Neck extensors, Paraspinals, hip extensors, Gastroc-soleus, and Quadriceps

12

Which mode of postural control is considered anticipatory, responding prior to voluntary movement that is potentially destabilizing?

Feedforward control

13

Which mode of postural control is considered compensatory or reactive, and is mainly sensory feedback from unexpected external perturbations triggering postural responses?

Feedback control

14

Slipping on the ice would trigger a response from which mode of postural control, feedforward or feedback?

feedback

15

What 3 inputs must be integrated to maintain proper posture and balance?

visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive inputs

16

T/F: The Romberg Test is used to analyze the vestibular input.

False; Romberg Test is for visual input analysis

17

Which input is tested when standing on unstable surfaces? Which is tested by the caloric reflex test?

proprioceptive;
vestibular

18

T/F: Good posture usually results in the least amount of energy expended.

True

19

T/F: Research suggests that with every one inch of forward head carriage, the spine must support an additional 5 pounds.

False; an extra 10 pounds per inch

20

What is the term for bipedal locomotion, a functional task requiring complex interactions and coordination among most of the major joints of the body, particularly of the lower extremity?

Gait

21

What is the term for the manner or style of walking?

gait

22

What is the term for the evaluation of the manner or style of walking?

Gait analysis

23

What is the term for the combination of several successively arranged joints constituting a complex motor unit?

Kinetic chain

24

What is the term for a kinetic chain in which the terminal segment can move freely? for when the distal end of the extremity is fixed?

Open Chain Movement;
Closed Chain Movement

25

What is the term for the force exerted by the ground on a body in contact with it?

Ground Reactive Forces

26

T/F: During gait, the hip joint motion is biaxial.

False; hip motion is triaxial

27

What are the 3 motion of the hip joint during gait? Which has the largest range?

flexion-extension, adduction-abduction, and int-ext rotation;
Flexion-extension

28

T/F: During gait, the knee join is biaxial.

False; triaxial like the hip

29

Which motion of the knee joint is aka varus-valgus?

Adduction-abduction

30

What is the primary motion of the knee joint? Which motion is the most limited (due to soft tissue and body constraints)?

flexion-extension;
Varus-valgus

31

Ankle motion is restricted by morphological constraints of which joint? What are the only motions allowed by the joint?

talocrural;
plantar flexion and dorsiflexion

32

What bones make up the talocrural joint?

talus, tibia, and fibula

33

Biomechanically, what must we do to initiate the first step from standing still?

must initiate a fall