Flashcards in Exam 3 Balance/Posture Part 1 Deck (33):
What is the term for the point at which the force of gravity seems to be concentrated?
Center of mass/gravity
What is the term for a vertical line representing gravity that passes through a system's center of mass/gravity?
line of gravity
T/F: In a typical person exhibiting proper, neutral posture, from the lateral view, the line of gravity passes through the vertex, mastoid process, Acromion process, and through the bodies of C1, C6, T11, L5, and S1 along with other structures.
What is the term for the area bound by regions of contact between a body and support surface or surfaces?
Base of support (BOS)
What term is the ability to maintain the center-of-gravity of an object within its base of support and is also known as stability?
What is your BOS when sitting?
the area bound by your thigh and buttocks
What term refers to the boundaries within which the body can maintain stability without changing BOS?
What happens if COG moves beyond limits of the BOS?
(COG=center of gravity and BOS=base of support)
What results from the interaction between the velocity and position of COG?
T/F: Fear of falling has no impact of dynamic stability limits.
What are the 5 main muscles/muscle groups considered primary postural (anti-gravity) muscles?
Neck extensors, Paraspinals, hip extensors, Gastroc-soleus, and Quadriceps
Which mode of postural control is considered anticipatory, responding prior to voluntary movement that is potentially destabilizing?
Which mode of postural control is considered compensatory or reactive, and is mainly sensory feedback from unexpected external perturbations triggering postural responses?
Slipping on the ice would trigger a response from which mode of postural control, feedforward or feedback?
What 3 inputs must be integrated to maintain proper posture and balance?
visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive inputs
T/F: The Romberg Test is used to analyze the vestibular input.
False; Romberg Test is for visual input analysis
Which input is tested when standing on unstable surfaces? Which is tested by the caloric reflex test?
T/F: Good posture usually results in the least amount of energy expended.
T/F: Research suggests that with every one inch of forward head carriage, the spine must support an additional 5 pounds.
False; an extra 10 pounds per inch
What is the term for bipedal locomotion, a functional task requiring complex interactions and coordination among most of the major joints of the body, particularly of the lower extremity?
What is the term for the manner or style of walking?
What is the term for the evaluation of the manner or style of walking?
What is the term for the combination of several successively arranged joints constituting a complex motor unit?
What is the term for a kinetic chain in which the terminal segment can move freely? for when the distal end of the extremity is fixed?
Open Chain Movement;
Closed Chain Movement
What is the term for the force exerted by the ground on a body in contact with it?
Ground Reactive Forces
T/F: During gait, the hip joint motion is biaxial.
False; hip motion is triaxial
What are the 3 motion of the hip joint during gait? Which has the largest range?
flexion-extension, adduction-abduction, and int-ext rotation;
T/F: During gait, the knee join is biaxial.
False; triaxial like the hip
Which motion of the knee joint is aka varus-valgus?
What is the primary motion of the knee joint? Which motion is the most limited (due to soft tissue and body constraints)?
Ankle motion is restricted by morphological constraints of which joint? What are the only motions allowed by the joint?
plantar flexion and dorsiflexion
What bones make up the talocrural joint?
talus, tibia, and fibula