Exam 2 Endocrine Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 2 Endocrine Deck (20):
1

androgen is used for the treatment of what 4 things?

1, delayed male puberty
2. hypogonadism
3. inoperable female breast cancer
4. loss of libido in post menopausal women

2

2 benefits of testosterone therapy

1, decrease fat mass
2. increase muscle power

3

4 risks of testosterone therapy

1. increased prostate
2. cardiovascular risks
3. water retention
4. problems with fertility

4

Why anabolic steroids enhance athletic performance?
Exhibit more ____ effects: no _____ effects
Increases muscle = can increase mass by ___%
Used by athletes to increase muscle mass and _____ ____

anabolic
androgenic
30%
physical performance

5

Abuse of anabolic steroids can lead to what 5 things?

1. mental depression
2. sodium retention
3. cholestatic jaundice
4. temporary impotence
5. impotence

6

Estrogen's effect as a ovulatory inhibitor

Inhibits FSH secretion and thus ovulatory stimulation is inhibited

7

Progesterone's effect as an ovulatory inhibitor

Alters endometrium development - tenacious mucus secreted under the influence of progesterone is probably a hostile environment for sperm

8

12 adverse effects associated with oral contraceptive use

1. MI/stroke
2. stroke risk increase if smoker over 35 years of age
3. nausea/vomiting
4. headache
5. breast pain
6. weight gain
7. breakthrough menstrual bleeding
8. mental depression
9. fatigue
10. lack of initiative
11. corneal sensitivity
12. retinal thrombosis
13. optic neuritis (diplopia)

9

Dental considerations associated with oral contraceptive use. Mimic effect of _____ on gingiva. Mild inflammation, ____, spontaneous gingival bleeding. Loss of ____ tone. Tenderness and _____. may decrease defense to ____ ____ resulting in irritation or progression of periodontal disease.

pregancy
hyperemia
tissue
ulceration
plaque bacteria

10

Why does antibiotics make BC less effective?

Antibiotics alter normal bacterial flora in gut
BC are inactive and get activated by normal flora
Active drug absorbed
If there is not enough normal flora in the gut, then drug is not activated therefore risk of pregnancy

11

6 antibiotics that do NOT affect oral contraceptives

1. tetracycline
2. doxycycline
3. ampicillin
4. metronidazole
5. fluconazole
6. fluoroquinolones

12

4 therapeutic uses of hormones

1. replace
2. diagnose
3. stimulate
4. inhibit

13

Use of GnRH in medicine: Stimulates release of ____ and ____. Action is at testes or ovaries to induce ______ and ___ ____ ____. Only hypothalamic hormone that is used as a ____. Also used for ____ induction in women with primary hypothalamic amenorrhea. _____ is an analog used as ovulatory stimulant. In men, treats idiopathic _____ _____ and GnRH replacement therapy results in achieving mature _______.

LH
FSH
gametogenesis
gonadal hormone production
drug
ovulation
clomiphene (Clomid)
hypogonadotropic hypogonadism
spermatogenesis

14

Which hormone is used as a diagnostic tool to diagnose adrenal dysfunction?

ACTH

15

ACTH: alternative to _____ in inflammatory conditions, stimulates release of ____ from adrenal gland, and ____ feedback to shut down ACTH output from pituitary

corticosteroids
glucocorticoids
cortisone

16

What is the most adundant hormone in anterior pituitary

Grow hormone (aka somatotropin)

17

____ used as a diagnostic tool to differentiate between pituitary and primary hypothyroidism

TSH

18

___ induces ovulation and regulates progesterone secretion in women, testosterone secretion in men

LH

19

what are the 2 posterior pituitary hormones?

1. Vasopression - ADH - vasoconstrictor and antidiuretic hormone, used for replacement in diabetes insipidus
2. Oxytocin - pitocin - contracts uterine SM at term and control postpartum bleeding or hemorrhage

20

How are ADH and OXY similar to each other?

Oxytocin has slight antidiuretic function and high levels of vasopressin can trigger uterine contractions