Flashcards in Exam 3 antineoplastic agents Deck (41):
When cell with normal growth changes into a cell with dysregulated growth (malignancy)
_____: inherited gene mutations that alter growth/repair, alterations in or loss of regulatory proteins
growth of transformed cells into a tumor, increase in # of cells
What are the critical cell cycle events?
synthesis of DNA (S phase)
division of parent into daughter cells (M phase = mitosis)
results in ___ ___ ___: challenge is to give adequate dose to kill cancer without killing too many healthy cells
dose limiting toxicities
_____: cancer cells acquire ability to invade tissues throughout body, tumor cells mutate which allows them to invade into tissues, vessels, body cavities, spread through lymph or blood and grow in new location
Metastasis (as they gain mutations their response to chemo may change)
7 categories of antineoplastic agents
1. alkylating agents
3. platinum complexes
4. vinca alkyloids
5. Hormonal agents
what drug is used to treat HIV associated kaposis sarcoma?
daunorubicin citrate (DaunoXome) (antibiotic)
What is Thalomid used to treat?
leprosy, investigational for multiple myeloma, chrons disease, graft vs host disease, AIDS related apthous lesions
Name the category of drug: interferes with DNA, RNA, and proteins to prevent cell metabolism and division - cell cycle non specific
Alkylating agents - transfers alkyl groups (alkylate DNA - probably at guanine as the primary mechanism for cell death)
Name the category of drug: interferes with growth of rapidly proliferating cells, S phase specific
what are the 3 classes of antimetabolites
1. folic acid antagonists
2. purine antagonists
3. pyrimidine antagonists
Which antimetabolite is S phase specific, inhibits DNA synthesis, and inhibits nucleic acid synthesis by blocking the enzyme dihydrofolate reducatese?
Folic acid antagonist (methotrexate)
What are the 2 drugs that inhibit pyrimidie synthesis?
What purine antagonist inhibits enzymes that convert hypoxanthine ribonucleotide to adenine and xanthine ribonucleotide? aka inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis
Which antinoplastic drugs inhibits DNA synthesis and repair and induces cell death via apoptosis or necrosis?
Which antineoplastic drugs inhibits mitotic division by interfering with microtubular proteiins involved in the formation of mitotic spindles? (M and S phase cell cycle specific)
Which antineoplastic drugs interrupt cells in G phase and reduce amount of circulating hormones?
_____: antitumor effect may be related to inhibition of glucose transport, phosphorylation, or induction of cell death in immature lymphocytes
_____: competiticely binds to estrogen receptors on tumors and other target tissues. It decreases DNA synthesis and inhibits estrogen effects in G0 and G1
Which antineoplastic drug's cytotoxins bind with DNA to inhibit cell division, both non cell specific and cell cycle specific. Inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis
Name 5 antineoplastic antibiotics discussed in class
1. bleomycin - G2, M
2. docorubicin - S
4. mitoantrone - affects entire cell cycle
5. mitomycin - G, S
which antineoplastic drugs are an angiogenesis inhibitors, immunosuppressant, and TNF blocking agent?
Which antineoplastic drugs interfere with cell proliferation and are relatively selective against cancer cells?
Chemo - cancer cells are most sensitive to these drugs when the cells are actively going through cell cycle
___: DNA damage is sensed by molecules that arrest the cell cycle to allow time for the damage to be repaired
transcription factor that regulates the cell cycle =
tumor suppressor, activates DNA repair proteins
How does tumor suppressor transcription factor work?
holds cell cycle at G1/S regulation point so that DNA repair proteins will fix damage, then cell is allowed to continue its cycle.
It can also initiate apoptosis if damage is irreparable
3 stresses that can induce tumor suppressor factor
3. DNA damage
Name 3 cancers that express p53 therefore are highly responsive to chemo?
Name 3 cancers that acquire a mutation in p53 therefore are minimally responsive or resistant to chemo
T/F multiple cycles of chemo must be give at the highest tolerable dose with the most frequent tolerable interval to achieve a cure
___ tumor site will respond better to chemo then ____ site.
_____: Current emphasis, acts on different molecular targets at different phases of the cell cycle with different dose limiting toxicities
combo chemo - reduces emergence of drug resistance, some regimens offer synergistic benefits, increases efficacy, and typically used intermittent dosing.
which antineoplastic drugs causes red urine as a side effect?
daunorubicin hydrochloride (antibiotic)
which antineoplastic drug causes nephrotoxicity, myelosuppression, neurotoxicity, ototoxicity, and nausea/vomiting?
platinum derived compounds
which antineoplastic drug increases susceptibility to infection?
which antineoplastic drug's side effects include uterine cancer, stroke, pulmonary emboli, liver problems, osteoporosis?
which antineoplastic drug increases risk for pulmonary fibrosis/pneumonia?
which antineoplastic drug causes oral mucosal lesions and diarrhea?
Name 7 side effects of chemo
1. suppression of bone marrow (immunosuppression/fatigue)
2. GI problems
3. Dermatological (skin lesions/alopecia)
4. Hepatotoxicity (enzyme induction or inhibition of P450)
5. Neurotoxicity (paresthesias, hearing/vision/hormones)
6. Nephrotoxicity (hyperuricemia/altered drug clearance)