Exam 4 Drugs for smoking cessation Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 4 Drugs for smoking cessation Deck (29):
1

3 types of drugs used for smoking cessation

1. nicotine replacement therapy
2. bupropion (Zyban)
3. varenicline (Chantix)

2

Nicotine functions as what?

potent vasoconstrictor

3

How is nicotine replacement therapy set up?

Pts must completely stop smoking prior to therapy
gum,lozenge, inhaler, nasal spray OTC
step down approach for 7-12 weeks
dosing gradually tapers down to wean off nicotine
designed to decrease cravings

4

Why must you quit smoking before starting nicotine replacement therapy?

nicotine raises cardio risk so cant smoke at the same time

5

what else is bupripion (Zyban) used for?

dopamine reuptake inhibitor = antidepressant (Wellbutrin)

6

Why should you avoid alcohol when taking bupripion?

risk for seizures

7

How long is the course of tx for bupripion?

7-12 weeks

8

Whats is the risk when used concurrent with patch?

emergent hypertension - monitor BP

9

varenicline (Chantix) is the newest smoking cessation drug, it is a partial neuronal ____-_ __ nicotinic receptor agonist and occupies nicotine receptor sites in the brain

alpha-4 B2

10

How does varenicline work?

prevents nicotine stimulation of mesolimbic dopamine system and stimulates dopamine activity but to a lesser extent than nicotine which results in decreased craving and withdrawal symptoms

11

2 oral side effects of varenicline (Chantix)

1. xerostomia
2. taste alteration

12

5 general side effects of varenicline (Chantix) - risks increased when used with nicotine replacement therapy

1. insomnia
2. headache
3. abnormal dreams
4. nausea
5. new reports of suicidal thoughts/ aggressive behavior / adverse cardiac events

13

What percent of smoking women want to quit?

70%

14

Average number of quit attempts?

8-11

15

Name of the program to help assist dental professionals with helping patients to quit smoking

Ask, Advise, Refer - 7-12 weeks long tx

16

What affect doe nicotine have on bone?

stimulates IL-6 which increase osteoclastic resorption and decreases estrogen protective effects on bone

17

___% of inhaled smoke is absorbed in oral cavity

30% - cancer risk, higher in females

18

4 desired effects of nicotine

1. increased alertness
2. muscle relaxation
3. facilitation of concentration and memory
4. decreased appetite

19

8 harmful effects of nicotine

1. irritability
2. hypertension
3. increased pulse rate
4. induces nausea/vomiting
5. dizziness
6. CAD
7. lung cancer
8. oral cancer

20

average age of initiation of smoking

14.5 years

21

nicotine causes lower estrogen levels which has what 4 effects

1. low birth weight babies
2. pregnancy complications
3. early menopause
4. osteoporosis

22

smoking ___ age of first heart attack and ___ risk for heart attack

lowers
raises

23

periodontal disease can be caused by smoking because...

nicotine stimulates IL-6 which increase osteoclastic resorption, nicotine decreases estrogen-protective effects on bone

24

name 10 cancer besides lung that can be due to smoking

1. oral
2. pharynx
3. larynx
4. esophagus
5. bladder
6. stomach
7. cervix
8. kidney
9. pancreas
10. acute myeloid leukemia

25

____ additives are approved by the US government in the manufacturing of cigarettes

599 (when burned, cigarette smoke contains over 4000 chemicals, 40 known carcinogens - carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, hydrogen cyanide and ammonia)

26

cigarette smoking = major cause of ___ cancer

esophageal (mouth cancers increase among people who smoke pipes and cigars)

27

8 notable chemicals in cigarettes

1. tar
2. hydrogen cyanide
3. benzene
4. acetone
5. formaldehyde
6. ammonia
7. carbon monoxide
8. nicotine

28

1 cigarette has how much nicotine?

8-9 mg (cigar 100-200 mg some up to 400 mg)

29

what chemical is used in manufacturing gasoline and a known cause of acute myeloid leukemia

benzene