Exam 3 Heavy metals Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Exam 3 Heavy metals Deck (22):
1

MOA of heavy metals: All metals produce ___ in animals and humans, form stable coordination complexes with a variety of ____, disrupt ___ and ____ processes, loss of ___ production, loss of ion ____, and potential _____.

toxicity
ligands
enzymatic and transport
energy
production
carcinogenesis

2

What sign of arsenic poisoning is used in the diagnosis?

garlic breath (other signs/symptoms: dermatological, vasodilation, vomiting, peripheral neuropathies, organ encephalopathy, headache, coma, teratogenic, and carcinogenic)

3

Acute exposure to mercury VAPOR will cause what 5 things?

1. CNS effects
2. psychotic reactions
3. delirium
4. hallucinations
5. suicidal tendency

4

Acute exposure to mercury at levels of 1.1 to 44 mg will result in what 5 things?

1. chest pain
2. dyspnea
3. cough
4. hemoptysis
5. impairment of pulmonary function
6. intersitial pneumonia

5

Chronic exposure to low levels of mercury vapor will cause what 3 things?

1. tremors
2. impaired cognitive skills
3. sleep disturbances

6

What type of mercury can be corrosive to oral cavity/gut and cause kidney damage?

inorganic mercury - found in amalgam

7

Long term exposure of what drug will cause nephropathy, abdominal pain, delayed puberty in girls, reduced cognitive capacity, and schizophrenia?

Lead

8

What oral manifestation is common with lead poisoning in children?

dark gray lines visible in teeth along the gingiva

9

Side effects of what poison are dermatitis, metallic taste in mouth, proteinuria, GI, aplastic anemia?

Gold poisioning

10

Side effects of what poison are in small doses headache, dizziness, and depression, and in large doses violent and frequent vomiting, diarrhea, muscle pain, and death with in days

Antimony

11

____: become absorbed in CV system and deposited into tissue, turn skin blue/grey (not permanent)

Argyria (silver)

12

What acute poisoning causes pulmonary problems and chronicly causes emphysema, COPD, and cancer?

Cadmium ( antidote can cause renal toxicity)

13

What poisoning causes GI, pneumonitis, convolusions, coma, and liver damage?

Iron

14

What poisoning causes dermatitis, nasal and respiratory cancer?

Nickel

15

antidote for iron/aluminum poisioning

Deferoxamine - complexes with trivalent ions (ferric ions) to form ferrioxamine which is removed by kidneys

16

antidote for nickel poisioning

diethyldithiocarbamate trihydrate

17

antidote for mercury poisoning

N-acetyl-D

18

antidote for lead/cadmium poisoning

calcium disodium edetate (EDTA)

19

antidote for gold/mercury poisoning

penicillamine - used long term to clear bone, skin, and keratinized tissues of arsenic antimony

20

antidote for arsenic/antimony/gold/mercury/lead/cadmium poisoning

Dimercaprol (BAL, dithioglycerol)

21

MOA for dimercaprol

sulfhydryl group + ions of heavy metal to form relatively stable nontoxic soluble chelates that are excreted in urine

22

6 requirements of an antidote

1. water solubility
2. resistant to metabolic degradation
3. small size
4. chelate is stable at physiological pH
5. chelate is less toxic than ion
6. bind the toxic metal better than it binds Ca